UNGA Disarmament Index 2023: A-G

This is an index of all references made to issues of disarmament and arms control made during the 78th General Debate of the United Nations General Assembly from 19–26 September 2023. 

A-G | H-R | S-Z

UN Secretary-General | UN General Assembly President (opening remarks) | UN General Assembly President (closing remarks)
Afghanistan | Albania | Algeria | Andorra | Angola | Antigua and Barbuda | Argentina | Armenia | Australia | AustriaAzerbaijan
Bahamas | Bahrain | Bangladesh | Barbados | Belarus | Belgium | Belize | Benin | Bhutan | Bolivia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Botswana | Brazil | Brunei Darussalam | Bulgaria | Burkina Faso | Burundi
Cabo Verde | Cambodia | Cameroon | Canada | Central African Republic | Chad | Chile | China | Colombia | Comoros | Congo | Costa RicaCôte d'Ivoire | Croatia | Cuba | Cyprus | Czech Republic

Democratic People's Republic of Korea | Democratic Republic of the Congo | Denmark | Djibouti | Dominica | Dominican Republic
Ecuador | Egypt | El Salvador | Equatorial Guinea | EritreaEstonia | Eswatini | Ethiopia | European Union
Fiji | FinlandFrance
Gabon | Gambia | Georgia | GermanyGhana | Greece | GrenadaGuatemala | GuineaGuinea-Bissau | Guyana

UN Secretary-General
Mr. António Guterres
19 September 2023

Militarism: “If every country fulfilled its obligations under the Charter, the right to peace would be guaranteed. When countries break those pledges, they create a world of insecurity for everyone. Exhibit A: Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. The war, in violation of the United Nations Charter and international law, has unleashed a nexus of horror: lives destroyed; human rights abused; families torn apart; children traumatized; hopes and dreams shattered.”

Nuclear weapons: “Beyond Ukraine, the war has serious implications for us all. Nuclear threats put us all at risk. Ignoring global treaties and conventions makes us all less safe. And the poisoning of global diplomacy obstructs progress across the board.”

Nuclear weapons: “Nuclear disarmament is at a standstill while countries develop new weapons and make new threats.”

Nuclear weapons: “The peace and security architecture is under unprecedented strain. That is why -- in the context of preparations for the Summit of the Future – we put forward ideas for the consideration of Member States for a New Agenda for Peace, based on the Charter and international law. It provides a unifying vision to address existing and new threats for a world in transition. Calling on States to recommit to a world free from nuclear weapons, and to end the erosion of the nuclear disarmament and arms control regime.”

Autonomous weapon systems: “Determination for peace also requires new governance frameworks for emerging threats – from artificial intelligence to lethal autonomous weapons systems that function without human control.”

Surveillance: “Hate speech, disinformation and conspiracy theories on social media platforms are spread and amplified by AI, undermining democracy and fueling violence and conflict in real life. Online surveillance and data harvesting are enabling human rights abuses on a mass scale.”

President of the General Assembly (opening remarks)
Mr. Dennis Francis
19 September 2023

Nuclear weapons: “This message is all the more important in light of the continued violation of the territorial integrity and sovereignty of a fellow member of the United Nations – Ukraine.... It has even revived the unconscionable threat of nuclear warfare.”

President of the General Assembly (closing remarks)
Mr. Dennis Francis
26 September 2023

Nuclear weapons, militarism: “Of the topics raised during the High-Level Week, few were as frequent, consistent, or as charged as that of the Ukraine war. The international community is clear that political independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity must be respected, and violence must end. These are calls grounded in the UN Charter. That this war is being perpetrated by a permanent member of the Security Council is unconscionable; that it has rekindled decades-old fears of the use of nuclear weapons is unthinkable. As discussed today, we must redouble efforts to entirely and absolutely end nuclear proliferation and promote full and total denuclearization.”

Militarism: “Calls to also give undivided attention to other raging conflicts across the globe – from Africa to the Middle East, as well as the deteriorating situation in Haiti – were also echoed loud and clear As President of the General Assembly – representing the best interests of all Member States of the United Nations – I recommit to do my part to shine a spotlight on the urgent need to resolve these situations of deep concern.”

Mr. Bajram Begaj, President
21 September 2023

Military alliances: “Since 1955, when Albania became a Member State of the United Nations, a lot has changed. From a self-isolated country, Albania now proudly stands as a NATO member and has initiated access and negotiation with the European Union.”

Militarism: “Albania, despite being a small nation with a young democracy, has history marked by wars it did not choose and domination it did not seek nor accept, while these are painful memories. They have also imparted invaluable lessons. It's precisely because of its history that Albania places great importance on international law as its foremost defense. We firmly embrace the principles of the rules based international order, where relations among nations are founded or respected, rather than sheer power. This commitment is why we have consistently and unequivocally condemned the military aggression against Ukraine and we will continue to do so.”

Mr. Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President
19 September 2023

Militarism: "Conflicts and crises today are reaching unparalleled levels. Millions of people are in a situation of displacement and international relations have gone from being relations of cooperation to relations of confrontation and conflict. All this is putting institutions and international organisations under pressure at a time when the world is facing urgent situations and unspeakable pressures. In the face of these multiple crises and geopolitical tension, the Security Council's role is also being called into question. As envisaged in the UN Charter, the role of the Security Council is to maintain international peace and security, in particular by preventing the use of force and addressing root causes that threaten international peace and security, ensuring the peaceful settlement of disputes. The time has come for us to reflect together so that the purposes enshrined in the Charter may prevail. The time has come for us to reinforce our common commitments, to establish solid pillars to strengthen international co-operation and make it more effective.”

Militarism: "Regarding the situation in Mali. Algeria… is determined to continue its efforts to overcome the obstacles that are emerging in this sister country, and we reiterate our position in this regard, which is to avoid the use of force to resolve a conflict.”

Militarism: "Turning now to the situation in Niger. Algeria reiterates its attachment to the restoration of constitutional order by peaceful means, so that a political and diplomatic solution prevails in full respect for the rule of law. We also urge caution against any intention of foreign military intervention, as this could have dangerous repercussions for peace and stability in Niger and the region as a whole.”

Mr. Xavier Espot Zamora, Head of Government
22 September 2023

Militarism: “However, the war is here. Europe is worried about a conflict that has ended up becoming a war of attrition, with enormous consequences for the Ukrainian civilian population. From our country, we strongly condemn this violation of the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine.”

Mr. João Manuel Gonçalves Lourenço, President
20 September 2023

Militarism, private military and security companies: “Until relatively recently, the SAHEL region was plagued only by the actions of terrorist groups reinforced by mercenaries for hire, who, having found a power vacuum in Libya, settled there and expanded into neighboring countries. To add to this already dangerous situation, a wave of unconstitutional changes of power led by the military emerged in more or less the same region.”

Demilitarisation: “In Europe, the war between Russia and Ukraine deserves our full attention and the urgent need to put an immediate end to it, given the levels of human and material destruction there, the risk of an escalation into a major conflict on a global scale and the impact of its harmful effects on energy and food security. All the evidence tells us that it is unlikely that there will be winners and losers on the battlefield, which is why the parties involved should be encouraged to prioritize dialogue and diplomacy as soon as possible, to establish a ceasefire and to negotiate a lasting peace not only for the warring countries, but which will guarantee Europe's security and contribute to world peace and security.”

Arms embargo, private military and security companies: “It is important to remember that in 2021, I took part in a Security Council meeting in this city to discuss the issue of lifting the arms embargo on the Central African Republic. Since then, there has been no progress on this issue, which seriously affects the exercise of a fundamental right of countries to have their own National Army to guarantee the defense of Independence, sovereignty and the normal functioning of the country's institutions. Once again, I would like to reiterate the relevance of putting this issue on the agenda of the United Nations Security Council, so that a decision can be taken that will allow the Central African Republic to fully fulfill its role as an independent and sovereign state, without having to resort to hiring foreign paramilitary forces for an indefinite period of time.”

Antigua and Barbuda
Mr. Gaston Browne, Prime Minister
22 September 2023

Small arms and light weapons, ammunition, arms trafficking: “The use of illegal guns accounts for a significant percent of all recorded homicides, in the Caribbean. At an average homicide rate of 15.1 per 100,000 people, this is nearly three times the world average. Yet, Mr. President, no country in the Caribbean manufactures a single weapon or one round of ammunition. The majority of these weapons originate in the United States from which they are smuggled or trafficked, to bolster organised criminals involved in trafficking illicit narcotics. In any event, the fallout from these illegal guns, is their increasing use in Caribbean countries and the clear threat that they pose to our societies and the capacity of our law enforcement to cope.”

Surveillance, autonomous weapons: “Given that all our countries are bordered by vast expanses of sea, we face further challenges to obtain modern technology, including satellite imagery, radar and surveillance systems to try to stop the smuggling of weapons. But Mr. President, while our region is confronting the threats to our security, arising from illegal traditional weapons; we are even more alarmed at the potential for autonomous weapons to fall into the hands of organised criminals.”

Drones: “Consider a drone, meticulously programmed with facial recognition technology, set to target an individual. It scans, identifies, and eliminates its target all while operating undetected.”

Autonomous weapons: “Just a month ago, under the theme of ‘A New Agenda for Peace,’ the UN Secretary-General sounded the alarm bell. He has urged nations to formulate a legally binding instrument by 2026 to prohibit lethal autonomous weapon systems. Antigua and Barbuda fully support this recommendation, and we will work with other nations to successfully conclude an international treaty that shields our societies and safeguards our national security from this threat.”

Mr. Alberto Fernández, President
19 September 2023

Militarism: “The present is also a time of tensions that are less well understood by public opinion, but which profoundly affect international peace. As an example of what I am saying, I would like to highlight Azerbaijan's blockades in the Lachin Corridor, which are causing a humanitarian crisis that is once again punishing part of the Armenian people. Precisely today, while this assembly is taking place, news reports indicate that Azerbaijan unleashed military operations with the aim of taking control of Nogorno-Karabakh. The international community cannot remain passive in the face of such a reality. It must act preventively to avoid further ethnic, racial, religious or political persecution. As we have always done, we continue to call on the parties to find the sanity that will summon them to peace and on multilateral organisations to regain the strength they seem to have lost to enforce international rules.”

Mr. Ararat Mirzoyan, Minister for Foreign Affairs
23 September 2023

Militarism: “The repetitive aggression of Azerbaijan against the sovereign territory of the Republic of Armenia and military attacks against the people of Nagorno-Karabakh significantly disrupts peace and stability in our region, massively violates human rights and humanitarian law representing existential threat for Armenians. My government, having a sincere belief and aspiration to establish peace and stability in our region, has made significant and duly recorded efforts to this end. Alas, we do not have a partner for peace but a country who openly declares that “Might has Right” and constantly uses force to disrupt the peace process. Literally a year ago, from this very stage the PM of Armenia presented the fact of aggression and occupation of the Republic of Armenia’s sovereign territories by neighboring Azerbaijan. Since then, the situation has deteriorated even more and today I have to present yet another very recent act of large-scale offensive, this time against the indigenous people of Nagorno-Karabakh, in blatant violation of the international law and Trilateral Statement of November 9, 2020.

“It happened this week and the timing was not accidental. It shows open disregard and defiance of Azerbaijan against the international community who gathered here in New York. The  message is clear: you can talk about peace and we can go to war and you will not be able to change anything. The 120,000 people, whose sole aspiration is to live and create in peace and dignity in their ancestral homeland and who have already been suffering under the 9-month blockade and siege by Azerbaijan, were subjected to military attack by tens of thousands of troops.”

Explosive weapons, drones, cluster munitions: “In the course of this inhumane attack, the whole territory of Nagorno-Karabakh, Stepanakert and other towns and settlements came under intense and indiscriminate shelling with heavy weaponry such as rockets, artillery, combat UAVs, aviation, including prohibited cluster munition. This atrocious large-scale offensive which claimed hundreds of lives, including of women and children, was cynically defined as a local counter terrorist operation. According to the recent information there are confirmed cases of more than 200 killed and 400 wounded, including among civilian population, women and children, also accepted by the Azerbaijani Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The fate of hundreds of people is uncertain.”

Militarism: “A number of partner states, international organizations, including UN Special Rapporteurs, the International Committee of the Red Cross, Human Rights Watch, Freedom House, Amnesty International, Transparency International had been continuously voicing an alarm about the deteriorating situation on the ground. Moreover, on August 16, during the emergency meeting of the United Nations Security Council conveyed by the request of Armenia, the majority of UNSC member states expressed clear position regarding the need to unblock the Lachin Corridor and halt the suffering of the people of Nagorno-Karabakh and ensure their fundamental human rights. Whereas, in response to these clear-cut calls, Azerbaijan has worsened its inhumane actions by launching this military attack against the people of Nagorno-Karabakh. On September 21, 2023, the United Nations Security Council gathered once again to discuss the devastating situation in Nagorno-Karabakh. The majority of the UNSC members expressed their position regarding the imperative of cessation of hostilities by Azerbaijan, opening of the Lachin corridor, ensuring international humanitarian access and addressing the rights and security of the people of Nagorno-Karabakh.”

Protection of civilians in armed conflict: “The use of starvation as a method of warfare, depriving people of their means of subsistence, obstruction and denial of humanitarian access of UN agencies, hindering the ICRC humanitarian activities, constitute early warning signs of an atrocity crime. A number of international human rights organizations, lawyers, genocide scholars, reputable independent experts, including the former ICC Prosecutor and the former Special Advisor of the UN  Secretary-General on the Prevention of Genocide have already characterized the situation on the ground in Nagorno-Karabakh as a risk of genocide. Just yesterday, the Special Advisor of the UN Secretary-General on the Prevention of Genocide Alice Wairimu Nderitu stressed and I quote: ‘Military action can only contribute to escalate what is already a tense situation and to put the civilian population in the area at risk of violence, including risk of genocide and related atrocity crimes. All efforts need to be made to prevent violence and sustain peace’, end of quote.

“Let me draw your attention to the fact that after failure of preventing Genocide in Rwanda, the United Nations managed to create mechanisms for prevention, thus making the “never again” a meaningful pledge. But today we are at the brink of another failure. The people of Nagorno-Karabakh, trapped in this inhumane blockade and hostilities inflicted by Azerbaijan and under the threat of their very existence, still hope that prevention will not remain a feature of language, but will become a line of actions. The claims that the United Nations is not present on the ground, so has no capacity to verify the situation cannot be an excuse for inaction. The United Nations is a universal body, which should stand with the victims of mass atrocity crimes all over the world regardless of the status of territory instead of delivering dismissive statements. We are hopeful that the international community, namely the UN will demonstrate a strong political will to condemn the resumption of hostilities and targeting of civilian settlements and infrastructure and demand full compliance with obligations under the international humanitarian law, including those related to the protection of civilians, in particular women and children, and critical civilian infrastructure.”

“We also believe that the international community must demand the exit of any Azerbaijani military and law-enforcement bodies from all civilian settlements in NK to exclude panic, provocations and escalation, endangering civilian population and create a possibility for a United Nations-mandated Peacekeeping Force to keep stability and security in Nagorno Karabakh.”

Militarism: “The ethnic cleansing policy against Nagorno-Karabakh is just a part of a bigger picture. In this regard we clearly see an intention to involve the Republic of Armenia in military actions thus widening the geography of hostilities into our sovereign territories. The unwillingness of Azerbaijan to genuinely and constructively engage in the peace process with Armenia, including to recognize the territorial integrity of the Republic of Armenia, withdraw its Armed forces from the occupied territories of Armenia, delimitate the Armenian- Azerbaijani interstate borders based on the latest available maps from 1975 corresponding with Almaty 1991 declaration, create a demilitarized zone along the interstate border, clearly illustrates the mentioned intentions.”

Ms. Penny Wong, Minister for Foreign Affairs
22 September 2023

Militarism: “Australia’s investments are a statement of our belief that social and economic progress are preconditions for peace. Just as peace is a precondition for progress. Peace is not a gift and it is never a given. It calls us to play our part in diplomatic reassurance, economic development and military deterrence.”

Militarism: “With its special responsibility as a permanent member of the Security Council, Russia mocks the UN every day it continues its illegal and immoral invasion of Ukraine. Just as Russia mocks the international community with its cynical games on food security that leave millions hungry; promising grain to vulnerable nations yet at the same time destroying Ukrainian grain silos along the Black Sea Coast. The rest of the permanent members and all member states must be unyielding in our response to Russia’s grave violation of Article II of our shared UN Charter. If we waver in our response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, we would be validating the most fundamental of breaches of international law… Who might be the next victim of state-based aggression?”

Arms race, nuclear weapons, militarism: “The world faces another existential threat… One risk that is consequential for every member state of these United Nations… And that is the risk of conflict between great powers.

“This great assembly of nations knows that strategic competition is not new. Through the course of history, it has played out across the globe. Often small countries, vast distances from major powers, have borne the brunt of a race for dominance, with legacies of those contests casting shadows across the generations. But the modern arms race forever transformed the scale of great power competition, and pushed all of humanity to the brink of Armageddon. In 1962, one of those close calls spurred the construction of conflict prevention infrastructure between the US and the Soviet Union: guardrails that responsibly managed Cold War competition and kept it from careering into conflict.

Today’s circumstances mean we need to commit anew to building such preventive infrastructure to reduce the risk of crisis, conflict and war by accident. The Indo-Pacific is home to unprecedented military build-up, yet transparency and strategic reassurance are lacking. Tension is rising between states with overlapping claims in the South China Sea, and disputed features have been militarised. And North Korea continues to destabilise with its ongoing nuclear weapons program and ballistic missile launches, threatening Japan, the Republic of Korea and the broader region. When you add dangerous encounters in the air and at sea, including between nuclear powers, we are faced with a combination of factors that give rise to the most confronting circumstances in decades.

In short, military power is expanding, but measures to constrain military conflict are not – and there are few concrete mechanisms for averting it. So it is up to all of us to act to deploy our collective statecraft, our influence, our networks, our capabilities, to minimise the risk of misunderstanding and miscalculation… To prevent catastrophic conflict. Peacebuilding today must rise to this challenge. This is why Australia is contributing to a strategic equilibrium. Helping to maintain the conditions for peace through our diplomacy - while playing our part in transparent, collective deterrence of aggression. We seek to ensure that no state concludes that the benefits of conflict outweigh the risks. And we seek new measures for conflict prevention that reinforce the region’s existing economic and security architecture.”

Militarism, nuclear weapons, missiles: “Strategic trust is clearly in short supply. We would be wise to encourage modest steps, focused on mutual strategic reassurance, military risk reduction measures and on opening lines of communication at all levels. Communication should never be withheld as a punishment or offered as a reward. Given how conflict could be sparked, there would be benefit in pursuing clearer arrangements among maritime countries – all maritime countries equally – to prevent unsafe actions at sea.

“And given that it is nuclear weapons that most risk catastrophe, we must work harder to achieve a world free of nuclear weapons. Our Government is renewing Australia’s enduring commitment to a world without nuclear weapons. We will continue to work with others to strengthen the NPT – the cornerstone of the global nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament regime – despite those who seek to damage it for their own gains. This week Australia joined Japan and the Philippines to urge progress on a Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty. This would address a critical gap in our disarmament architecture, by stopping the production of material needed to create nuclear weapons. Australia is also working with the IAEA to ensure the peaceful use of technology and combat proliferation and nuclear security risks.”

Mr. Alexander Schallenberg, Federal Minister for European and International Affairs
21 September 2023

Militarism: “We are meeting in this hall today at a time that is undeniably one of the most challenging in recent history. One look at the news and we see: The highest number of violent conflicts since World War II, including a full-scale war of aggression by Russia against Ukraine.”

Disarmament: “And frankly, nobody can deny that the rules-based international system, with all its imperfections, has served us all pretty well over the past eight decades … [including] through a web of international treaties and agreements addressing such diverse issues as disarmament or climate change.”

Mr. Jeyhun Aziz oglu Bayramov, Minister for Foreign Affairs
23 September 2023

Militarism: “Despite unprecedented suffering, deprivation, and devastation that the people of Azerbaijan were subjected to due to the 30 year-long military occupation, Azerbaijan initiated normalization agenda and offered peace to Armenia based on equal and reciprocal respect for legitimate interests of both sides through mutual recognition of and respect for each other's sovereignty, territorial integrity, and inviolability of borders. Over the past few months, thanks to concerted efforts of international partners, negotiations have intensified, and yielded limited, but promising results.

“Yet, what we observe is replication by Armenia of the past pattern to imitate talks, backtrack from previously undertaken commitments at the last minute, and commit political, military, and other provocations at every negotiation stage to evade taking concrete decisions. As such, the efforts for durable peace between Azerbaijan and Armenia have again become hostage to Armenia's policy of revanchism.

“For almost three years since November 2020, more than ten thousand- strong armed formations equipped with heavy offensive weaponry were sustained by Armenia in the sovereign soil of Azerbaijan, including by abusing the Lachin road, in an attempt to fuel separatism.”

Landmines, ammunition: “Thus, one day later, mine planting by Armenian sabotage group led to tragic death of six Azerbaijani citizens, two civilians and four police officers, in two separate mine explosions. Other six police officers were seriously injured. In response, Azerbaijan launched local counter-terror measures to neutralize illegal armed formations to preserve its sovereignty and territorial integrity and to protect the safety and security of its residents. These measures were limited and proportionate, exclusively aimed at neutralizing legitimate military targets by using high-precision ammunition in full compliance with norms of humanitarian law. All measures were taken to avoid collateral damage.”

Militarism, weapons: “In less than 24 hours, the horrific scale of illegal militarization of territories of Azerbaijan became clear with neutralization of more than 90 military outposts, 20 combat vehicles, 40 artillery pieces, 30 mortars, 6 electromagnetic warfare (EW) systems, and 2 anti-aircraft missile systems. More evidence is being collected now as disarmament continues on the ground. No sovereign state would tolerate illegal military presence on its soil. Nor did Azerbaijan.

Disarmament, DDR: “The counter-terror measures taken by Azerbaijan achieved the set goals. Armenia and its subordinate illegal regime were forced to agree to disarm, disband all illegal structures and withdraw from Azerbaijan. The reason why it did not happen peacefully lies in brazen disregard by Armenia and lack of adequate action by involved third-party facilitators. As counter-terror measures halted, Azerbaijan has now embarked on practical implementation of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration efforts on the ground.”

Landmines: “Regrettably, the massive contamination of territories of Azerbaijan with landmines and other explosive devices remains a significant obstacle to smooth progress of rehabilitation and reconstruction. This contamination is posing a threat to those returning home after being displaced for three decades.

“The refusal of Armenia to share all maps of mined areas and the continued planting of landmines, installation of booby traps and other explosives even after the declaration of cessation of all military activities, further aggravates the situation and increases the human toll. Since November 2020, 315 individuals have fallen victim to landmines planted by Armenia. Some mines were transferred to the territory of Azerbaijan and planted therein after the signing of the Trilateral Statement.

“Given the ongoing landmine problem in Azerbaijan and the challenges national agencies face in addressing it, there is an urgent need for increased international support to strengthen Azerbaijan's humanitarian mine action capacity. Such support would not only aid in demining efforts but also contribute to the global campaign against landmines and demonstrate a commitment to peace and cooperation in the region.”

Mr. Frederick Audley Mitchell, Minister for Foreign Affairs
22 September 2023

No relevant references.

Mr. Abdullatif bin Rashid Al Zayani, Minister for Foreign Affairs
22 September 2023

Cyber: The general debate of the current session is held amidst global challenges and crises that threaten the development of countries and affect the lives, security, stability and safety of peoples. Foremost of these are: the worsening of wars and armed conflicts; the dangers of extremism, terrorism and organized crime; cybersecurity threats, food and water security, climate change, as well as natural and health disasters.”

Demilitarisation, nuclear energy: “Firstly – the prevalence of the language of dialogue and a peaceful and civilized approach in ending wars and settling all regional and international differences and disputes. Foremost in this is: the promotion of a just, comprehensive and lasting peace process in the Middle East, and supporting the rights of the brotherly Palestinian people to establish their independent state with East Jerusalem as its capital; the strengthening of peaceful coexistence among the peoples of the region, expressing our support for the extension of the United Nations humanitarian truce in Yemen; achieving sustainable peaceful solutions to the crises in Syria, Lebanon, Sudan, Libya and Afghanistan in a way that preserves the unity, sovereignty and territorial integrity of these countries, supports their development process and alleviates the suffering of their peoples; and our support for international mediation efforts to achieve peace in various parts of the world. In this context, we reiterate our call for renewed endeavours to end the war in Ukraine through peaceful negotiations and to avoid escalation, in a way that achieves the interests of the two neighbouring countries and contributes to the protection of civilians and respect for international humanitarian law, in order to preserve security and peace in Europe, reducing its devastating humanitarian repercussions, and addressing its global impacts on global food security, energy supplies, the environment and nuclear safety.”

Weapons of mass destruction, cyber: “Fourth - To galvanise international efforts in addressing common security challenges, through cooperation and coordination in the fight against terrorism and to cut off its financial and intellectual sources; to intensify efforts to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and to ensure that the Middle East region is a weapons of mass destruction free zone; to cooperate in protecting the security of commercial shipping and energy supplies in the Gulf region, and to combat cybercrime.”

Mr. Sheikh Hasina, Prime Minister
22 September 2023

Disarmament, non-proliferation, nuclear weapons: “Bangladesh’s commitment to the general and complete disarmament is unwavering. We are party to all major disarmament and non-proliferation treaties including the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW). We call for full implementation of the international disarmament and nonproliferation instruments without any delay.”

Demilitarisation: “As a victim of and witness to brutalities of war and assassination, I can feel the pain and agony that people endure due to the horrors of wars, killings, coup d'etats and conflicts. Therefore, my appeal today is to all of you - to the leaders of the world, to shun the path of war and confrontation, and to work collectively for enduring peace, welfare for humankind and economic prosperity for our people and future generations.”

Ms. Mia Amor Mottley, Prime Minister
22 September 2023

No relevant references.

Mr. Sergei Aleinik, Minister for Foreign Affairs
23 September 2023

Militarism: “President of the Republic of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko back in 2017 took the initiative to ‘launch’ a global security dialogue. This initiative was an attempt to prevent the spread of negative spirals in global politics. Unfortunately, some key ‘players’ did not want to hear this reasonable call. As a result, the security architecture in Europe has failed.”

Arms trade: “It is obvious that by increasing the supply of weapons to this country, the West is determined to ‘continue the war to the last Ukrainian.’ But does Ukraine want this? Do Ukrainians need a war of attrition? We are convinced that – no! Belarus, for its part, has always advocated peace in the neighboring country and has taken all necessary measures. As the President of Belarus notes, we are ready to do everything in our power even now.”

Mr. Alexander de Croo, Prime Minister
20 September 2023

Nuclear energy: “We are making progress on the nuclear front as well. Belgium has reached an agreement with its nuclear operator to prolong the lifespan of its two biggest power plants. We will remain a nuclear nation. And we will seek renewed, close cooperation with other nuclear nations. Because to achieve climate neutrality, we will need both renewables and nuclear.”

Militarism: "And it must be said that the clear and present danger is coming from a permanent member of the UN Security Council. From Russia, that decided to throw all international rules overboard and to invade its neighbor. From Russia, that is executing its opponents. Russia created the Wagner group to bring death and destruction to Africa. Plundering Africa while increasing the price of grain for the most vulnerable. In fact, what Wagner and Putin are doing to Africa is exactly the same as in Ukraine. Preventing Africa from flourishing. Denying African country’s their sovereignty. And ultimately, like in Ukraine, to colonize. Putin and Wagner want to turn back the clock. They want to restore the old-world order as it was dominated by colonial powers."

Mr. Eamon Courtenay, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade
23 September 2023

Militarism, protection of civilians in armed conflict: “Regrettably, Russia’s war against Ukraine continues with devastating effects especially on civilians. We condemn the attempt to redraw international borders by force. This war must end. The price is too high. It is time for peace.”

Mr. Marc Hermanne Gninadoou Araba, Chair of the Delegation
26 September 2023

Cyber: “It is only subject to such courageous reforms, supported by an asserted political will, that we can effectively face the major contemporary challenges that challenge us and around which our Organization stakes its credibility in national public opinion, even on the international scene. These challenges have the names, inter alia: Peace and security, including cybersecurity.”

Mr. Tandi Dorji, Minister for Foreign Affairs
26 September 2023

No relevant references.

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
Mr. Luis Alberto Arce Catacora, Constitutional President
19 September 2023

Militarism: “It is evident that we are facing the precariousness of the economy due to the effects of the multiple war conflicts that are currently shaking the world. Peace and security are at imminent risk due to the lack of will of the international community to propose solutions that privilege dialogue and put an end to the war efforts promoted by transnational war corporations.”

Arms race, demilitarisation: “We reiterate, as we did last year, our proposal that the world be declared a territory of peace. We must put an end, once and for all, to the arms race and prioritize sincere dialogue and people's diplomacy to resolve armed conflicts that threaten the existence of humanity.”

Weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons: “In this order of ideas, we reiterate our deep concern about the escalation of violence in the conflict in Eastern Europe, and the threat of several countries to aggravate the situation through a confrontation with the use of weapons of mass destruction, weapons that use depleted radioactive elements and unconventional weapons, which are prohibited by international law through different international instruments that are binding.”

Military spending: “We see with absolute concern that military spending in the world has reached historic figures, until April 2023, the world invested more than 2.24 trillion dollars in weapons and the war industry.”

Outer space: “The means and ways of waging war cannot be unlimited, a growing number of countries are seeking to use outer space to improve their military capabilities in order to protect their national security, further endangering the peace and security of our planet.”

Disarmament: “Genuine peace can only be achieved through the effective implementation of the mechanisms provided for in the United Nations Charter and the complete elimination of all types of weapons. Bolivia will always be committed to defending and strengthening multilateralism and to continue contributing to disarmament in compliance with International Law, International Humanitarian Law (IHL), from a vision focused on peace with social justice, the well-being of people and peaceful coexistence.”

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Mr. Zeljko Komšić, Chairman of the Presidency
20 September 2023

No relevant references.

Mr. Mokgweetsi Eric Keabetswe Masisi, President
20 September 2023

Nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation, arms control, weapons of mass destruction: “While we work on resolving active conflicts, we must step up action in mitigating all threats to international peace and security by reaffirming and observing the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, international law and other obligations. This also includes commitment to obligations concerning, among others, nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation, arms control, weapons of mass destruction.”

Mr. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, President
19 September 2023

Militarism: “There will be no sustainability or prosperity without peace. Armed conflicts are an offense to human rationality. We know the horrors and suffering produced by all wars. Promoting a culture of peace is a duty for us all. Building it requires persistence and vigilance. It is disturbing to see that old unresolved disputes persist and new threats emerge or gain force. The difficulty of guaranteeing the creation of a State for the Palestinian people clearly shows this. Added to this case, the persevering humanitarian crisis in Haiti, the conflict in Yemen, threats to Libyan national unity and institutional ruptures in Burkina Faso, Gabon, Guinea-Conakry, Mali, Niger and Sudan. In Guatemala, there is a risk of a coup, which would prevent the winner of the democratic elections from taking office. The war in the Ukraine exposes our collective inability to enforce the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. We do not underestimate the difficulties in achieving peace. But no solution will be lasting if it is not based on dialogue.I have reiterated that work needs to be done to create space for negotiations.”

Military spending, nuclear weapons: “A lot is invested in weapons and little in development. Last year, military spending totalled over 2 trillion dollars. Expenditure on nuclear weapons reached 83 billion dollars, a value twenty times higher than the regular UN budget. Stability and security will not be achieved where there is social exclusion and inequality. The UN was born to be the home of understanding and dialogue. The international community must choose. On one hand, there is the expansion of conflicts, the furthering of inequalities and the erosion of the Rule of Law. On the other, the renewing of multilateral institutions dedicated to promoting peace.”

Brunei Darussalam
Mr. Dato Erywan Pehin Yusof, Second Minister for Foreign Affairs
23 September 2023

Militarism: “No nation represents our collective failure more evidently than the State of Palestine. It has continuously been denied of its fundamental freedoms safeguarded under the UN Charter. The 75th Anniversary of the Na’kba earlier this year served as a reminder of how long and intolerable it has been for the Palestinian people to be deprived of their rights to self rule, self-determination, and peace. For most, they have spent their entire lives under occupation.”

Mr. Rumen Radev, President
20 September 2023

Explosive weapons: “Bulgaria is deeply concerned by the decision of the Russian Federation to withdraw from the Black Sea Grain Initiative. The bombing of the Ukrainian harbor infrastructure and the restriction of navigation in the Black Sea, leads to further escalation of global food insecurity, especially in the Global South where the price of the war is particularly high.”

Nuclear weapons: “Bulgaria is a staunch supporter of further strengthening of the global nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation architecture. We call for dialogue among nuclear weapon states on confidence-building. Russia's suspension of its participation in the New START Treaty is a cause of great concern. Its intention to deploy nuclear weapons in Belarus undermines the strategic stability and the overall security architecture. We call on Russia to prove its commitment to the January 3, 2022 Joint Statement on Preventing Nuclear War and Avoiding Arms Races.”

Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, nuclear weapons: “We call on Iran to come back to its obligations under the JCPOA and DPRK to stop challenging the international nonproliferation agreements.”

Burkina Faso
Mr. Bassolma Bazie, Minister of State
23 September 2023

Militarism: “Finally, speaking of the UN Charter and International Law, a conflict between Russia and Ukraine is maintained and desired by certain other powers. Thus, several Western countries, notably the United States and the European Union, have poured all kinds of support, particularly military support. The Ukrainian civilian populations engaged as volunteers, some of whom even pilot tanks, are congratulated and treated as patriots.

“Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso are facing a war imposed on them by imperialism under the cover of terrorists of all kinds (AQIM, DAESH, JNIM, etc.) sowing terror and desolation. Despite the existence of this same Charter of the United Nations with its principles of equality, justice on the one hand and on the other hand the same international law invoked at this forum of the UN, there is clearly an abysmal gap in handling questions.”

Arms embargo: “In addition to aid cuts, cancellation of training conventions for our Defense and Security Forces (FDS), we are witnessing the blocking of our military equipment ordered with the sweat of our compatriots, always under the impetus from France. For example, for the air vectors necessary for the control and defense of the territory, we had a contract with Brazil for which the Weapons License had to come from Belgium, and the Navigation and Shooting system as well as the Cameras of the United States of America, then a Motor of Canada. These means are today fallaciously and cynically blocked. You are talking about Defense of Human Rights at this UN forum, I therefore invite you to immediately deliver our Weapons to us for the defense and protection of our battered populations. In any case, you are solemnly informed and if nothing is done, history will hold you responsible for failure to assist people in danger!”

Mercenaries: “On the question of the presence of WAGNER in Burkina Faso sung by a certain press controlled from the Elysée, I will answer this: Yes, Mr. President, we are the WAGNERs of Burkina Faso! Yes, these brave FDS and VDP are the WAGNERs of Burkina Faso!! Therefore, from the top of this UN Tribune which magnifies the sacrifice of every patriot in the name of the national interest, I warmly salute the memory of all those who fell with arms in their hands and magnify the courage and integrity of those who are still alive and moving inexorably and sacrificially towards the victory of our people and the safeguard of our Homeland.”

Militarism, weapons: “Firstly, in the Sahel we have nearly ten thousand soldiers from foreign armies composed mainly of French soldiers but also American, German, Italian soldiers, etc. with the most sophisticated weapons, flying and surveillance equipment in the world and despite everything, no one sees columns of hundreds of terrorists moving to serve desolation and death, often with unimaginable weapons.

“In Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso, there are no arms or ammunition factories. So who recruits these terrorists? Who trains them? Who permanently staffs them? Who feeds them and with what means? Do you believe in this philanthropy in the name of which Westerners will send their soldiers to the Sahel to die for the sake of the Sahelians? If so, what justifies the irritations and other diplomatic gesticulations as soon as France is told to leave militarily? The real reason is the underground resources in the Sahel! Indeed, the French National Assembly passed law n°057-7-27 of January 10, 1957 published in the official journal of the French Republic of January 12, 1957 creating the Common Organization of Saharan Regions (OCRS) which brings together parts of Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mauritania, Algeria, etc. This area has no equal in the world in terms of underground wealth. For example, the most important water table goes from Mauritania to Somalia via Mali, Algeria, Libya, Niger, etc. The newspaper Le Monde of July 23, 1957 put forward the figure of 6 to 7 million tons of oil as the potential annual production of the Sahara. In addition to these natural resources, we have uranium, gold, cobalt, zinc, diamond, lithium, copper, etc…. So stop the crude diplomatic lie of saying that these imperialist powers are coming to the Sahel to defend Democracy and Human Rights.”

Military spending, nuclear weapons: “What has just been described are the deeply unfortunate labels of a UN today summarized only in its formal portion because: - 1.2 billion people are plunged into poverty; - 2000 billion US dollars in armaments; - 20 times the UN Budget in nuclear power.”

Militarism: “From fake independence to fratricidal wars, from electoral democracy to biased aid, from predatory wars to terrorism maliciously manufactured, maintained and injected into our African countries, particularly in Mali, Burkina Faso and Niger, there is only one constant: we to dominate, to keep the “foot on our neck” such as the case of our unfortunate brother George Floyd in the United States right here! Is this democracy?”

Militarism, weapons: “Thirdly, the African people in general and those of the Sahel in particular have discovered chains of economic, security and socio-cultural alienation materialized in secret agreements with France and are committed to breaking them for their true emancipation. These are, among others: ... the exclusive right to supply military equipment and train military officers of the colonies.”

Mr. Evariste Ndayishimiye, President
21 September 2023

Militarism: “On this subject, if we insist on restoring trust between States, we should succeed together in condemning certain fishermen in troubled waters who fuel conflicts and lead to the destabilization of other States. Let us dare to say it, the political and security instability of the countries of the South, especially in Africa, comes from the will of the powers who want to guide the internal policies of developing countries. Africa, in particular, having become the terrain of geopolitical clashes between great powers, it is still years behind in terms of economic development. And, it is this economic deficit which becomes the cause of the internal conflicts which still push our countries into extreme poverty…. My country reiterates its firm commitment to the peaceful resolution of conflicts through dialogue, cooperation, consultation and negotiation. Generally speaking, peace, security and stability in the world seem to be giving way to war, terrorism and violent extremism, crimes and violence of all kinds.”

Cabo Verde
José Ulisses Correia e Silva, Prime Minister
23 September 2023

Militarism: “The world has experienced periods of intense crisis. We have observed a resurgence of populism and extremism, as well as attacks on democracy. There have been successive coup d’états in African countries. In these difficult times of war in Ukraine, Cabo Verde is on the side of values and principles of freedom and respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of peoples and nations. Based on these principles and values, we condemn the Russian invasion of Ukraine. In these challenging times caused by instability and successive coup d’états in African countries, Cabo Verde is on the side of principles and values of constitutional liberal democracy. Based on these principles, we condemn coup d’états as a means to achieve power.”

Cyber: “Partnership among nations is key to overcome threats to world security. And we are referring to security in a broad and global sense: … (3) security against drug trafficking, terrorism, piracy, human trafficking, and cybercrime.”

Cambodia (Kingdom of)
Mr. Samdech Moha Borvor Thipadei Manet Hun, Prime Minister
22 September 2023

Militarism: “I share the prevailing concern over the growing global instability and geopolitical tensions we all witness at present. The escalation of the war in Ukraine — and its grave consequences — reflect a significant erosion of trust among Member States and lack of confidence in multilateralism.”

Military bases, militarism: “Cambodia remains resolute against the threat or use of force in international relations, interference in the internal affairs of and aggression against other independent nations. Cambodia shall not authorize any foreign military base on its territory, as clearly stated in its constitution. Cambodia will not allow any country nor any group to use its territory against another country. Cambodia will further endeavor to strengthen and expand good cooperation with nations around the world — through bilateral, regional and international frameworks — to contribute to global peace, security, stability, sustainable development and prosperity shared by all.”

Landmines, unexploded ordnance: “In addition to the SDGs under the global framework, Cambodia has added its own specific goal related to mine action — namely, a ‘Mine-Free Cambodia by 2025’. In this effort, we call for continued financial and technical support. We also urge greater participation by the international community to raise awareness of the dangers of landmines and unexploded ordnance, the ‘hidden killers; that threaten human security even after armed conflicts end.”

Mr. Lejeune Mbella Mbella, Minister for External Affairs
26 September 2023

No relevant references.

Mr. Bob Rae, Ambassador and Permanent Representative
26 September 2023

Militarism: “Over the past decades, the Middle East and the wider world have struggled with the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Today, we are greatly concerned by the trajectory of the conflict, noting in particular the rising levels of violence in the West Bank and Israel, the continued risk of escalation between Israel and Gaza, and the continued growth of Israeli Settlements. The measures and rhetoric that make two states impossible must stop. Canada is committed to the goal of a just, comprehensive and lasting peace in the Middle East, including the creation of a Palestinian state living side by side in peace and security with Israel.”

Militarism, explosive weapons: “I must conclude on what remains the greatest threat to global peace and security today: Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine. The Charter clearly commits us all to end the scourge of war. The Russian Federation signed the Charter. And yet, despite that signature, for 580 days the Russian Federation has waged an illegal and immoral war of aggression against a fellow member of this organization, Ukraine. The costs are staggering. Above all, there is an unimaginable cost counted in Ukrainian lives. In hospitals and schools bombed, people displaced, and children abducted and forcibly deported. The ripple effects of this war are also felt deeply around the world. President Zelenskyy rightly likened it to a global natural disaster. … Canada will continue to explore every measure to support Ukraine as it continues to defend itself, its people, its identity, its sovereignty and territorial integrity. This support is fully in line with our commitments under the Charter and international law. It is Russia’s unlawful and immoral war that is not. And it is Russia’s war that must come to an end.”

Central African Republic
Mr. Faustin Archange Touadera, Head of State
21 September 2023

Militarism: “This escalation of the migrant crisis is one of the appalling consequences of the plundering of the natural resources of countries made poor by slavery, colonization, Western imperialism, terrorism and internal armed conflicts often open against a backdrop of hegemonic aims, geopolitical and geostrategic tensions between the major world powers.”

Militarism: “Today, in Africa as elsewhere, conflicts, symptoms of geopolitical and geostrategic tensions which divide the great powers, have opened. In Sudan, an internal armed conflict of rare cruelty broke out in April 2023, even though the country was on the path to normalization with a promising dialogue process between all the active forces of the nation…. And while we are holding this Session, the Russian-Ukrainian conflict continues on the ground without any prospect of a peaceful settlement, while the consequences for the world are painful and regrettable.”

Arms embargo: “Indeed, on July 29, 2023, the Central African people learned with great desolation of the renewal of the arms embargo, motivated by truncated reports and statements of reasons, with a fallacious exemption for the national security forces. The Central African Republic denounces to the world this cynical decision which betrays the unacknowledged intention of the members of the Council which voted for, to exploit the sanctions regimes for the purposes of political pressure, under the aegis of the UN. I must recall, to deplore it, that the embargoes on arms and diamonds renewed for 10 years, to which is added the suspension of budgetary support, constitute real obstacles to my country's achievement of the objectives of the 2030 Agenda…. I urge the Security Council to put an end to these artifices which aim to mask the desire to perpetuate insecurity and the control over the country's natural resources for the benefit of foreign powers, consecrate the legitimation of armed groups and grant them the status subject of international law.”

Mr. Mahamat Saleh Annadif, Minister for Foreign Affairs
21 September 2023

Militarism: “With regard to the crisis in Sudan, Chad reiterates its call for a lasting cease-fire, believing that there is no military solution to the conflict currently unravelling in this brotherly neighbouring country. It calls on all Sudanese men and women to take a national leap towards an inclusive political dialogue.”

Mr. Gabriel Boric Font, President
20 September 2023

Explosive weapons: “The images of La Moneda, the Government Palace, being bombed, the immolation of the constitutional president of Chile, Salvador Allende, and also the evidence that the US government of the time under President Nixon had conspired from the outset to promote the failure of the Chilean government, shocked the democratic conscience of the world.”

Mr. Han Zheng, Vice-President
21 September 2023

Demilitarisation: “First, we should uphold equity and justice and safeguard peace and security. The security of all countries is interconnected. Indeed, the security of one country has an impact on that of other countries. It is important to follow the vision of common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security and embark on a path to security featuring dialogue over confrontation, partnership over alliance and win-win outcomes over a zero sum game. We should address the legitimate security concerns of all countries and resolve differences and disputes in a peaceful way through dialogue and consultation. Communication and dialogue is an important way to achieve international security cooperation, and parties to a conflict or confrontation should never forget this. Cessation of hostilities and resumption of peace talk is the only way to settle the Ukraine crisis. China supports all efforts that are conducive to the peaceful resolution of the Ukraine crisis and stands ready to continue playing a constructive role for the early attainment of peace.”

Nuclear weapons: “Nuclear war must not be fought and nuclear weapons must not be used. China is the only country among the five permanent members of the Security Council that has pledged no first use of nuclear weapons.”

Arms control, conventional weapons: “China attaches great importance to conventional arms control and will soon complete its ratification of the UN Firearms Protocol.”

Landmines: “China will carry out demining cooperation in ASEAN countries in the next three years to help them eliminate this hazard at an early date.”

Mr. Gustavo Petro Urrego, President
19 September 2023

Militarism: “We are not thinking about how to expand life in the stars but how to end it on our planet. We have dedicated ourselves to war. We have been called to war. Latin America has been called to deliver machines, men to go to the battlefields. They forgot that our countries have been invaded several times by the same people who today talk about fighting against invasions. They forgot that Iraq, Syria and Libya were invaded for oil. They forgot that the same reasons that are expressed to defend Zelensky are the same reasons that should be used to defend Palestine. They forgot that, in order to meet the Sustainable Development Goals, all wars must be stopped. But they helped to start one because it suited the world power in their game of thrones, in the hunger games; and they forgot to end the other because it did not suit the world power to end it. What is the difference between Ukraine and Palestine? Isn't it time to end both wars, and others, and use the short time to build the ways to save life on the planet?”

Militarism: “I propose that the United Nations sponsor two Peace Conferences as soon as possible, one on Ukraine, the other on Palestine, not because there are no other wars in the world, as in my country, but because they would teach peace making in all regions of the planet, because both and only both would put an end to hypocrisy as a political practice, because we could be sincere, a virtue without which we will not be the warriors of life. The generation that today must decide and act as soon as possible to overcome the enormous hurricane that has been unleashed against the living, from the dark but powerful sewers of greed, from the hurricane of capital that only looks at profit and that has engulfed the planet and the very basis of existence. I propose an end to the war to defend life from the climate crisis, the mother of all crises.”

Military spending: “They broke their own promise to fund climate change adaptation, they don't have a hundred billion dollars to give to countries to defend against floods, storms and hurricanes, but they have it in one day for Russians and Ukrainians to kill each other.”

Militarism: “They sowed injustice, gentlemen, the worst of all, condemning humanity to war. That is why today the balance of social justice in the world is so bad. The problem is that this was not an issue of socialists, of progressives, but an issue where the time of life on the planet was at stake. I propose to you, as president of the land of beauty, to make up for lost time, two simple things: end the war and reform the global financial system.”

Militarism: “Empires do not serve to save life but to unleash wars.”

Mr. Azali Assoumani, President
20 September 2023

No relevant references.

Mr. Denis Sassou Nguesso, President
21 September 2023

Militarism: “This session of the General Assembly is being held at a time when wars and other armed conflicts are raging around the world. This is the place to hammer home, once again, that no significant progress will be possible on any continent or in any country without peace. The hope of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals assigned by the United Nations will only be a pipe dream if we do not ourselves create the first of all the conditions necessary for their achievement, namely peace. For its part and whenever circumstances have permitted, the Republic of Congo has always worked for the peaceful resolution of conflicts in Africa and around the world. This is how my country decided to take an active part in the African Initiative for peace mediation between Russia and Ukraine.

“Due to the risk of generalized war that these events pose to the world, not only the two protagonists in this conflict, but also the foreign powers who can influence the course of events in the direction of peace, all should temper their ardor, stop fanning the embers and engage, without delay, in peace negotiations. Fair, sincere and equitable negotiations. The world urgently needs these negotiations, to prevent the current clashes, already so devastating, from further crescendoing and tipping humanity into what could be an irremediable cataclysm, that is to say a war total and which would escape the control of the great powers themselves. I remain convinced that the wise recommendations made by Africa to restore peace between Ukraine and Russia will ultimately be taken into account.”

Costa Rica
Mr. Arnoldo Ricardo André Tinoco, Minister for Foreign Affairs
22 September 2023

Militarism: “Regarding the war against Ukraine, Costa Rica urgently calls for concrete and immediate measures to cease fire and establish a peace plan for the Russian Federation to withdraw its troops and answer for its actions before international justice.”

Disarmament, non-proliferation, arms control: “We are faced not only with the paralysis of the Security Council, but also with the clear violation of the UN Charter itself by one of the permanent members, and the almost generalised non-compliance with international treaties on disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control by those who are supposed to guarantee our security.”

Cyber, autonomous weapons: “In addition, we urgently need new governance frameworks for cybersecurity, cybercrime and artificial intelligence. The militarisation of new technologies poses specific challenges, which is why, as agreed in the Belén Communiqué and together with Austria and Mexico, we will submit a resolution to the General Assembly addressing the issue of autonomous weapons systems.”

Military spending: “For Costa Rica it is clear that the responsibility for the financial sustainability of peace must weigh more heavily on those who violate it. I say this because almost fifteen years ago military spending was just over a trillion dollars. Ten years later, global military spending has more than doubled to over 2 trillion dollars despite the fact that Article 26 of the UN Charter mandates the pursuit of international peace and security through minimal arms spending. Costa Rica demands that the mandate of Article 26 be honoured and calls on all Member States to commit to the intentional and sustained reduction of military spending. Our only weapon must be international law. Costa Rica therefore welcomes the fact that this General Assembly is assuming the functions granted to it by the Charter with a more active role in matters of international peace and security. My country is also proud to be at the forefront of this trend and pledges to continue to move forward, for we cannot afford to wait for a dysfunctional Security Council to fulfil its obligations.”

Guns, demilitarisation: “Costa Rica is an example that dialogue can be more powerful than guns, that the criteria of inclusion and fair competition are stronger than the obsessive race driven by spurious and selfish interests. We Costa Ricans are not afraid to join those who defy the precept ‘might makes right’. It is those of us who depend on the international system who understand the urgency of establishing a global system that addresses the needs of the most vulnerable. The proposals that Costa Rica has made seek to accelerate the decision-making required to emerge from the lethargy in which our Organisation is mired. We are at a turning point. If ever there was a time to call for action, this is it.”

Côte d’Ivoire
Mr. Tiémoko Meyliet Koné, Vice-President
21 September 2023

Militarism: “It is time for the international community to mobilize and act, so that the parties to the conflict in Ukraine and all of their external partners commit to a political settlement of this war. Beyond the risk of escalation of violence and human rights abuses, this conflict fuels global inflation, generates shortages of essential foodstuffs and threatens to plunge millions into famine.”

Mr. Zoran Milanović, President
20 September 2023

Military spending: “Peace is not maintained by itself. Investment in conflict prevention is far more cost effective than investing in the conflict resolution and recovery after the fact. This is why prevention of conflict and sustaining peace should be at the centre of the framework of the New Agenda for Peace, intertwined with a renewed commitment to multilateralism, global solidarity and trust.”

Mr. Miguel Díaz-Canel Bermúdez, President
19 September 2023

No relevant references.

Mr. Nikos Christodoulides, President
20 September 2023

Militarism: “Cyprus condemns in the strongest terms any breach of international peace and security effected through military action by any state, against the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of another state. We stand on this instance of violation of international law, and on every such instance, on the right side of history… We call for the immediate cessation of hostilities and encourage the parties to engage in constructive dialogue and negotiation. The world must support this effort, not only because history demands it, but also to ensure the world steps back from the edge of a war that could reduce this institution to rubble.”

Militarism: “In 1974 Turkey invaded Cyprus, and since then, 49 years on, occupies European territory, and its people – Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots – continue to suffer the consequences of invasion, occupation, division. They are deprived of fundamental freedoms and human rights… One of the lessons we are reminded of by the recent invasion of Ukraine is that in the absence of lasting, viable peace, the resulting fragility can lead to destabilization, with far-reaching consequences, not just for the country concerned, but for the region to which it belongs, and for the world at large.”

Czech Republic
Mr. Petr Pavel, President
19 September 2023

Militarism: “The Russian full-scale invasion of Ukraine continues to constitute a manifest violation of the UN Charter and international law we all subscribed to. My country has its own experience with wars and interventions, including decades long military occupation imposed by Moscow. It taught us what it means when ‘might makes right’.”

Militarism, military spending: “The threats we face are global and interconnected. Because of Russia and a handful of other countries, our world is more dangerous and rougher. Instead of cultivating cooperative security, we have to build up our militaries. Instead of boosting social cohesion programs and overcoming economic insecurity, we have to boost our defense budgets. Those who contest the international rules steer the wheel of global security backwards, into confrontation, and sooner or later at the expense of all of us.”

Nuclear weapons: “Russia’s reckless threats to use nuclear weapons, its policy of coercion and intimidation represent a threat to balance and integrity of the whole system of non-proliferation. The announced stationing of nuclear weapons in Belarus is a further irresponsible escalation Czechia condemns in the strongest terms.”

Nuclear weapons, missiles: “In North Korea and Iran, reckless escalation of nuclear or intercontinental ballistic missile activities combined with lack of transparency threaten international and regional security.”

Cyber: “Malign actors use cyberspace, disinformation, economic, political and other tools to disrupt democratic processes, to undermine our institutions and to weaken our security.”

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Mr. Song Kim, Chair of the Delegation
26 September 2023

Militarism, military alliances: “To make matters worse, some UN member states are instigating confrontation between camps and bloc-forming in pursuance of hegemony and self-profits. Because of their prejudiced behavior, conflict and bloodshed among nations, forces, ethnics and religious sects are continuing unabated in the international arena.”

Nuclear weapons: “Owing to the reckless and continued hysteria of nuclear showdown on the part of the U.S. and its following forces, the year 2023 has been recorded as an extremely dangerous year that the military security situation in and around the Korean peninsula was driven closer to the brink of a nuclear war.”

Militarism, military alliances, nuclear weapons: “From the beginning of the year, the U.S. and the “Republic of Korea” made hysterical remarks of confrontation such as “end of the regime” and “occupation of Pyongyang” in flagrant violation of the principles and purposes of the UN Charter. They staged largest scale joint military exercises of clearly aggressive nature one after another on our doorstep including the “Freedom Shield”, “Ssangryong”, “Combined Joint Fire Annihilation Drill”, and “Ulchi Freedom Shield”. After fabricating the so-called “Nuclear Consultative Group” in April committed to the planning, operation and execution of preemptive nuclear strike against the DPRK, the U.S. is now moving on to the practical stage of realizing its sinister intention to provoke a nuclear war by frequently dispatching strategic nuclear submarines and strategic nuclear bombers carrying nuclear weapons in and around the Korean peninsula for the first time in decades. The formation of the tripartite military alliance among the U.S., Japan and the “ROK” has also put into practice its long-sought ambition for “Asian version of NATO", thus introducing a “new cold war” structure to Northeast Asia.

“The current dangerous situation on the Korean peninsula is attributable to the U.S. in its attempt to realize its ambition for hegemony by all means, overestimating its powers. But due responsibility also lies with the incumbent “ROK” ruling forces that try to impose the scourge of a nuclear war on the nation, obsessed with pro-U.S. submission and fratricidal confrontation. Only a few days ago, at this very place, Yoon Suk Yeol unreasonably denounced our just and legitimate measures to enhance national defense capabilities and even went so far as to make provocative remarks about the normal development of cooperative relations among our friendly neighbours. Development of equal and reciprocal relations between and among independent sovereign states is not an issue for the “ROK” to interfere in as it is no more than a colony of the U.S. Ever since the current puppet "government" came to power, the whole area of the “ROK” turned literally into a military colony of the U.S., powder keg of war and military outpost, due to its sycophantic and humiliating policy of depending on outside forces and the Korean peninsula is in a hair-trigger situation with imminent danger of nuclear war breakout.

“The reckless acts of the U.S. and its following forces are exerting irreversibly destructive impact on the regional politico-military situation and security structure as they drive the situation of the Korean peninsula into actual armed conflict. Given the prevailing circumstances, the DPRK is urgently required to further accelerate the build-up of its self-defence capabilities to defend itself impregnably. It is only too natural that the more the reckless military moves and provocations of the hostile forces are intensified threatening the sovereignty and security interests of our state, the more our endeavours to enhance national defence capabilities would increase in direct proportion. The DPRK remains steadfast and unchanged in its determination to firmly defend the national sovereignty, security interests and well-being of the people against the hostile threats from outside. The U.S. and its following forces should look back on the consequences of their hostilities committed so far tarnishing the image of our state and gravely infringing upon our security and fundamental interests, and make a right choice judging what the end result would be.”

“Comrade Kim Jong Un, President of the State Affairs of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea said: We should not tolerate the imperialists' moves for aggression and war against sovereign nations; instead, we should struggle to ward off the danger of war and defend global peace and security. Now the U.S. is arbitrarily judging other countries by its unilateral hegemonic values. And it is imposing inter-camp confrontation upon them, creating deep division and conflict among states. As the U.S. is seeking politico-military collusion on an unprecedented scale for alleged cementing alliance and reviving and expanding worldwide such aggressive military bloc as NATO whose days are numbered, the world is now faced with the worst security crisis after the WWII. No country or region in the world can be said to be secure, as long as there exist high-handed acts of dominationist forces posing a threat to other nations’ security, while scheming and inciting bloody confrontation, coup d’état and war in different parts of the planet, in pursuit of their hegemony and expansion.

“The current reality urgently demands the UN to strictly adhere to the principles of impartiality and objectivity and to fulfill responsibly its mission and role enshrined in the UN Charter, in keeping with its mission to save the present and future of humanity from the scourge of war and realize international justice. The issue to be addressed before anything else in the UN activities is to ensure that the Security Council is not allowed to be used as an instrument of specific forces for pursuing their geopolitical purposes, but strictly observes the principles of objectivity, impartiality and equity, befitting its heavy responsibility for maintenance of international peace and security.”

Nuclear weapons: “On the contrary, the UNSC has never expressed concern over the U.S. and its following forces’ nefarious nuclear war exercises against the DPRK and continued deployment of strategic assets, which clearly constitute [a] threat to peace and security of the Korean peninsula and the rest of the world.”

Nuclear energy, nuclear waste: “In defiance of strong protests and criticism of the international community, Japan discharged nuclear-contaminated water into the ocean at long last, thus causing irrevocable damage to the safety of humanity and marine ecological environment. Nevertheless, the Security Council is keeping silence and furthermore, some permanent members do not even hesitate to resort to irresponsible act of instigating it.”

Democratic Republic of the Congo
Félix-Antoine Tshisekedi Tshilombo, President
20 September 2023

No relevant references.

Mr. Dan Jørgensen, Minister for Development Cooperation and Global Climate Policy
21 September 2023

Militarism: “Russia’s blatant disrespect of the most fundamental principles of the UN Charter – including the principle of territorial sovereignty - is a tragedy for the United Nations. It is a look into a brutal world where international law has lost respect among nations and might is right. The war is not just an unspeakable tragedy for the people of Ukraine. It has devastating effects for people around the world suffering under food shortages and other global consequences of this senseless war.”

Mr. Mahamoud Ali Youssouf, Minister for Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
23 September 2023

Autonomous weapons: “Technological innovations, while we recognize the promises they contain, legitimately generate fears about the destructive uses that can be made of them.”

Militarism: “The fight to liberate Somali territory from Al-Shabab forces is a vital fight. The mobilization of all Somali forces under the leadership of President Hassan Sheikh deserves to be supported without reservation until the ultimate goal is achieved. However, we express the fear that the gains obtained on this front will be called into question due to the drop in the number of ATMIS soldiers whose courage and self-sacrifice we salute. If we understand the constraints of available financial resources, the consequences of our decisions deserve to be carefully considered. Somalia at this critical stage needs maximum support commensurate with the threat weighing on it.”

Demilitarisation: “We remain concerned by the deterioration of the security situation in Sudan and call for the rapid establishment of a ceasefire and the immediate resumption of talks aimed at stopping hostilities and political negotiation for an end to the crisis. . Djibouti, as current President of IGAD and under the leadership of President Ismail Omar Guelleh, is determined to work for lasting peace in this brother country with which we share close political, historical and cultural ties.”

Militarism: “We are seriously concerned by the escalation of violence and the resumption of hostilities in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. We are shocked by Israel's continued illegal construction and expansion of settlements.”

Mr. Charles Angelo Savarin, President
21 September 2023

Militarism: “The conflict in Ukraine continues unabated, amidst the global call for an end to this terrible war. Such a situation would normally be unthinkable in this 21st century. As the conflict escalates, the World Bank’s most recent estimate for reconstruction and recovery of Ukraine is placed at US $411 billion dollars; this figure is expected to increase the longer the conflict persists. All conflicts must eventually end at the negotiating table. Dominica therefore calls for an end to the fighting and for good faith negotiations to prevail. We join all those resolute in their international obligation, to uphold peace as outlined in the UN Charter and we support the call for a resolution to the issues giving rise to the conflict.”

Militarism: “While we in Dominica are opposed to coups and attempted coups, we are also aware that in 2010, there were a series of uprisings affecting Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa which was dubbed in the West as the Arab Spring. These uprisings, with at least the tacit support of the West, resulted in the removal of several governments. There was no talk of sanctions or military intervention to restore the ousted governments.

“Today, Mr. President, we are witnessing what I refer to as the African Summer and we are hearing the drum beat of sanctions and military intervention. What is the difference between the Arab Spring and the African Summer, I ask? The international community should pay heed to the wisdom of the leaders of the African Union, who have opposed military intervention and urged diplomatic engagement. The question is, whose interest would military intervention serve? Certainly not the people of Africa. We in Dominica and the Caribbean urge, that in all such situations, that the interest of the population be foremost in any consideration of intervention by neighbouring countries and indeed by the international community.”

Dominican Republic
Mr. Luis Rodolfo Abinader Corona, President
20 September 2023

Small arms and light weapons, arms trade: “The Security Council has already approved three important resolutions, creating a sanctions regime, an effort to stop the illicit flow of weapons and a call for the creation of a multinational force to assist the Haitian national police as requested by the Haitian government and the Secretary General of this organization.”

Mr. Guillermo Lasso Mendoza, Constitutional President
20 September 2023

Arms trafficking: “During the nine months of our membership in the Security Council, we have acted consistently in accordance with the United Nations Charter, prioritising the peaceful resolution of conflicts and the protection of civilians, the women, peace and security agenda, as well as the fight against illegal arms trafficking.”

Militarism: “I reiterate my statement at the High-Level Meeting of the Security Council on Ukraine. We demand, once again, an end to military aggression, in compliance with the Order of the International Court of Justice, and progress towards a peace based on the territorial integrity of Ukraine and the Charter of the United Nations.”

Arms trafficking: “Transnational organised crime is a corrupting and murderous system that penetrates society and the state, that challenges the democratic stability of our countries and that advances at great speed. It is not a problem exclusive to Ecuador, it is a world problem, because throughout much of the planet the same phenomena that Ecuador suffers from are growing: drug and arms trafficking, human trafficking, forced migration and illegal mining.”

Mr. Sameh Shoukry, Minister of Foreign Affairs
23 September 2023

Militarism: “The serious implications of the conflict in Ukraine have clearly illustrated that the security and stability of one party to the conflict cannot be addressed to the exclusion of another and that the responsibility of conflict resolution is indeed incumbent upon all of us, not only those directly affected.”

Militarism: “The United Nations was established to save the world from the scourge of war and to build a world founded upon noble principles. In spite of this, the previous 78 years have witnessed conflicts that have reaped tens of millions of innocent lives. This, however, must not dissuade us from subscribing to these principles. Rather, we must admit that there have been errors in applying their practical application and that often, certain policies have even blatantly contravened them.”

El Salvador
Mr. Nayib Armando Bukele, President
19 September 2023

No relevant references.

Equatorial Guinea
Mr. Teodoro Nguema Obiang Mangue, Vice-President
21 September 2023

No relevant references.

Mr. Osman Saleh Mohammed, Minister for Foreign Affairs
23 September 2023

Militarism, military alliances: “Seventy-eight years have elapsed since the historic establishment of the United Nations on 24 October 1945. This historic event occurred on the ashes and aftermath of the Second World War which had caused unprecedented loss of life and devastation to humanity. Unfortunately, the poignant lessons drawn from this ferocious war did not usher in an era of enduring peace rooted on legality, justice, and sustainable equilibrium in global terms.

“The Cold-War that lasted for the subsequent 45 years incubated a spiral of incessant conflicts and instability in many parts of the world with all its detrimental consequences to enduring and inclusive prosperity. More ominously, the futile attempts to impose a unipolar world order in the last thirty years or so, and in particular, the crises spawned in these times aimed at reviving defunct alliances and military blocs, are increasingly pushing our global community into the precipice of a much more perilous catastrophe.

“Within this calamitous global reality, the African continent has been, and remains, marginalized; compelled, as it is, to shoulder the brunt of these destructive policies. In this perspective, it must be recognized that the resistance movements unfolding in Africa - manifested in different variants – are expressions and continuation of the struggle against colonialism. They are defiant reactions to “modern slavery”, unremitting plunder, and domination. Another dimension that is often glossed over is the fact that “Al-Qaeda”; “Daesh”; “al-Shebab”; as well as other offshoots and franchise terrorist groups, are criminal enterprises propped up and funded by the same forces of domination for political ends. They are ruthlessly instrumentalized to foment crises and provide plausible pretexts for military intervention.”

Mr. Alar Karis, President
20 September 2023

No relevant references.

Mr. Mswati III, King
20 September 2023

No relevant references.

Mr. Demeke Mekonnen Hassen, Deputy Prime Minister
23 September 2023

Nuclear weapons: “The threat of nuclear weapons is another source of grave concern for humanity. The international community needs to prioritize dialogue to de-escalate tensions and prevent the threat of nuclear weapons.”

Disarmament, demobilisation, and reintegration (DDR)
: “The Pretoria Peace Agreement ended a two-year long conflict in northern Ethiopia. This Agreement is a practical embodiment of ‘African Solutions to African Problems.’ The implementation of the Agreement continues to make significant progress, despite some delays in the execution of the Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration process. There is a need to expedite this process and ensure its successful completion. The continued implementation of the Agreement is a clear manifestation of the Government's commitment to resolving political differences through dialogue and constitutional means. We are also actively undertaking rehabilitation and reconstruction programs in areas affected by conflicts.”

European Union
Mr. Charles Michel, President of the European Council
21 September 2023

Nuclear weapons, AI weapons: “Just like the frantic nuclear arms race last century, artificial intelligence, particularly in the military sphere, is becoming the arena for geopolitical competition.”

Militarism: “The General Assembly has condemned Russia’s war against Ukraine on several occasions. This is, of course, a powerful reminder of the principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity. But that has not stopped the Kremlin in its murderous adventure. Nor has it curbed its sense of impunity... But this impunity will not last forever. Justice will be done. The European Union will steadfastly support Ukraine in exercising its right of self-defence.”

Militarism: “We are shocked by the latest devastating developments in the South Caucasus. Military force is never a sustainable solution when there are hearts and minds to be won.”

Mr. Sitiveni Ligamamada Rabuka, Prime Minister
22 September 2023

No relevant references.

Mr. Sauli Niinistö, President
20 September 2023

Militarism: “More than one and a half years ago, Russia launched its large-scale war on Ukraine. Russia’s aggression is a direct violation of the United Nations Charter, to which we are all committed…. We do not want to see the world regress to a state where the big consider it their privilege to subjugate the small. While the war is directed against Ukraine, it affects us all, both in principle and practice. It has serious consequences globally. The war in Ukraine must not become one of the many protracted conflicts we see around the world today. Peace that respects Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity is in all of our interests. It must be objective.

“Finland supports Ukraine’s efforts towards a just and lasting peace. But these cannot be Ukraine’s efforts alone. As wide an international participation as possible is needed. It is essential that the discussions recently held in Jeddah continue. The open debate taking place today in the Security Council is also a very important opportunity to discuss and find avenues forward. Bringing the war to a just end is essential for the Ukrainians, but it may also help to lower tensions on a wider scale.”

Arms control: “We are witnessing the erosion of the international arms control architecture. Important treaties have been abandoned. What is left seems to be in jeopardy. Rebuilding and strengthening arms control in the current international environment is difficult. But we have to understand that a world without mutually agreed-upon rules and transparency is an unpredictable one. Emerging technologies are further complicating the picture. The risks are mounting. We must come together to tackle these issues.”

Militarism: “Globally, people’s sense of security has decreased to an alarming level. There are over a hundred armed conflicts ongoing worldwide. People in Afghanistan, Sudan and Yemen, and in many other countries, continue to face enormous humanitarian needs. We should not lose sight of any of these emergencies. I commend the Secretary-General for his vision outlined in the New Agenda for Peace. We must prioritise diplomacy and make full use of the United Nations.”

Ms. Catherine Colonna, Minister for Foreign Affairs
21 September 2023

Explosive weapons: “In Nagorno-Karabakh, the international community must ensure that a population subjected to nine months of relentless blockade, recovering from a campaign of bombing and destruction, can finally see its rights and security guaranteed. A diktat imposed on a civilian population under siege cannot be a solution, while the threats made against Armenia itself and the attacks on its territory, which have already been observed, must cease.”

Protection of civilians in armed conflict: “Our support for the International Criminal Court is expressed everywhere: in the Sahel to judge the jihadists that France had subdued yesterday and who are once again threatening an entire region; in Ukraine of course where war crimes are committed daily against the population. What is happening in Ukraine concerns us all. If we allow our common principles to be transgressed there, they will be transgressed everywhere; if we allow one aggression to be rewarded, others will occur, there or elsewhere.”

Mr. Raymond Ndong Sima, Prime Minister
22 September 2023

Militarism: “Indeed, the system of collective and indivisible security advocated by the United Nations Charter appears to be a fiction in many regions of the world plagued by war, particularly in Africa, where the Sahel region, the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes region have become veritable epicentres of instability.”

Demilitarisation: “We must, without further delay, carry out a genuine structural transformation of our organization's peace and security architecture, and adapt our mechanisms for promoting peace and security to a global context of constantly changing crises and conflicts.”

Demilitarisation, non-proliferation, weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons: “Our generation has a responsibility to future generations to bequeath them a safer world, a world in which the threats to in which the threats to peace and security posed by the proliferation of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is contained, a world without nuclear threats.”

Gambia (Republic of The)
Mr. Mohammed Jallow, Vice-President
21 September 2023

Militarism: “In Africa, we continue to face the threat of terrorism, piracy, re-emergence of unconstitutional change of governments, civil strife, and armed conflicts across the Sahel and the Horn of Africa. The scenario is similar across parts of the Middle East. The ongoing Russia-Ukraine conflict is another matter of serious geopolitical concern, in view of its wider global impact. The institutional failures, human suffering, and huge number of lives lost should serve as a wake-up call for all Member States.”

Militarism: “Today, we are hamstrung by the weaknesses of our institutions and arrangements, largely exacerbated by mistrust and lack of true international solidarity. In the face of the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, we call on the warring parties to give peace a chance. We further call on them to respect the sanctity of human life. It is only through negotiation and political dialogue that such conflicts can end. We also call on our brothers and sisters in the Sahel and the Horn of Africa to choose peace over armed conflict.”

Mr. Olaf Scholz, Chancellor
19 September 2023

Militarism: “When I look back here today at the beginnings of our membership of the United Nations, I am doing so not only out of historical interest. Rather, it is because the prohibition of the use of force still remains the unfulfilled core pledge of our United Nations…. Germany is strongly committed to these three ideals - the renunciation of the use of force as a political instrument, the rejection of any kind of revisionism and the determination to engage in cooperation beyond any dividing factors…. All of us, almost all of us, want force as a political instrument to remain banned.”

AI weapons: “Artificial intelligence, for example, offers tremendous opportunities. And at the same time, it can cement the division of the world if only a few benefit from it, if algorithms only take into account part of the reality, if access is limited to richer countries. That is why Germany actively is fostering the exchange on the Global Digital Compact. We should also talk about common rules for the possible use of generative artificial intelligence as a weapon.”

Mr. Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo, President
20 September 2023

Militarism: “Instability in the Sahel and widespread terrorist activities have put West African countries under severe political pressure and economic strain. Several countries in the region have lost vast stretches of territory to the rampaging terrorists. Coup d’états have reemerged as what some mistakenly hope would be the solution to the threats that confront their nations. We, in the West African Region, are trying as best as we can, under the very trying conditions we face, to deal with the situation. We are convinced that the conflicts that continue to plague our continent and our Region, in particular, would be more satisfactorily resolved if the international community was to support, not undermine, the efforts of our regional and continental organisations to deal with them. Africans fought and died in the Second World War in defence of Europe and her Allies, who reset the world towards the path of peace and prosperity that their nations and citizens have enjoyed for decades now. It is surely time for the world to reciprocate in our time of need.”

Mr. Kyriakos Mitsotakis, Prime Minister
21 September 2023

Surveillance: “Working together, bilaterally and multilaterally, we must strengthen border controls and surveillance mechanisms to detect and intercept smugglers and their activities. And we can do that, through the use of advanced technology, intelligence sharing, and cooperation among border control agencies.”

Military alliances: “Today however, the assertion on Russia’s part is that NATO, the EU, the other partners that support Ukraine, will eventually lose the stomach to continue that fight. Let me be clear: this should not happen. This will not happen. We will never walk away from Ukraine, because to do so would be to abandon the very principles of peace, democracy, and adherence to International Law that so many in this room hold dear.”

Mr. Dickon Mitchell, Prime Minister
22 September 2023

No relevant references.

Mr. Alejandro Giammattei Falla, President
19 September 2023

Militarism: “Today we are facing an unprecedented moment. For more than a year and a half now, we have been watching with horror the war launched by the Russian Federation against Ukraine, which violates the most elementary principles on which the international order was based after the second world war. And you know what the worst thing is, we seem to have got used to it! We have become accustomed to flagrant violations of human rights; to war; to death. And worse, instead of facing it, we have become accustomed to look the other way in the face of a sad and crude reality that we pretend to ignore. This has led us to mistrust between human beings, to inequality between nations, to disrespect for peace agreements, and under this reality peace agreements, and under this reality, prosperity and human progress are impossible.”

Nuclear weapons, nuclear energy: “The disarmament and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, as well as the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, is one of the most important pillars of the organization.”

Nuclear weapons: “As a state party to the Treaty of Tlatelolco, the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, my country is deeply committed to the common goal of a world free of weapons of mass destruction.”

Nuclear energy: “Imagine the catastrophe that would be for the world if the illegal and unprovoked aggression of the Russian Federation destroyed the Zaporizhzya nuclear generation plant, the largest nuclear power plant in Europe, which is in danger its integrity and operation and which could cause a disaster of immeasurable proportions.”

Nuclear weapons: “That is why I reiterate the position of Guatemala as a country respectful of the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and I demand all countries possessing nuclear weapons, including the five permanent members of the Council that manage the peace and security of this organization, feel and with frankness achieve total nuclear disarmament.

Nuclear energy: “I propose that we start ASAP the fourth amendment to the UN Charter…. In this amendment, it must be ensure that the recognition of the sovereign equality of states is a reality, that the resolution of conflicts between countries through the peaceful way is an obligation, that nuclear energy is used only for peaceful purposes but perhaps, the most important of all, is that the members of the united nations do not exclude anyone.”

Militarism: “We also condemn the constant and increasing military manoeuvres in the waters and airspace around Taiwan, which endanger the security of the region, and which affect international transportation and trade.”

Mr. Mamadi Doumbouya, President
21 September 2023

No relevant references.

Mr. Úmaro Sissoco Embaló, President
21 September 2023

No relevant references.

Dr. Mohamed Irfaan Ali, President
20 September 2023

Military spending: “We have noted that since the war began in Ukraine more than a year ago the developed world provided about 220 billion dollars in support to Ukraine. The World Bank added more than $37.5 billion in emergency financing - almost 260 billion dollars mobilized in less than two years… On the other hand, aid to the Palestinian people over a period of 26 years – 1994-2020 – amounted to just over 40 billion dollars according to figures compiled by the OECD. Haiti received just over US$20 billion in aid for reconstruction and development over the past 60 years. African countries were recipients of just over 113 billion dollars for 2015 and 2016 to fight hunger, according to the OECD… Clearly this is a demonstration of an unjust eco-system surrounding and supporting development finance, peace and security. Importantly, it also proves that if truly committed, mechanisms do exist to unlock financing at scale.”

Militarism: “Adherence to the rule of law, including international law, must continue to be the cornerstone of all of our engagements. This is being undermined by threats and naked acts of aggression against sovereign states and by the perpetuation of old conflicts and disputes between states. The Russian invasion must end. Greater diplomatic efforts must be made to bring an end to this war.”