Still assuring destruction forever
One year after the release of the groundbreaking 2012 report Assuring destruction forever: nuclear weapon modernization around the world, nuclear-armed states have continued to invest in modernization of their nuclear systems.
In 2012, Reaching Critical Will published the first report on global nuclear weapon modernization. Non-governmental researchers and analysts, leading and knowledgeable experts about nuclear weapons programmes and policies, provided information on the plans of China (Hui Zhang), France (Hans Kristensen), India (M.V. Ramana), Israel (Merav Datan), Pakistan (Zia Mian), Russia (Pavel Podvig), the United Kingdom (John Ainslie), and the United States (Andrew Lichterman). Still assuring destruction forever provides an update of the summaries of each of the countries covered by the 2012 report.
Edited by Ray Acheson • Published by Reaching Critical Will, a programme of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom • Second Edition (2021) • First published in 2013.
Introduction Ray Acheson, Reaching Critical Will
China Hui Zhang, Harvard University
France Hans Kristensen, Federation of American Scientists
India M.V. Ramana, Princeton University
Israel Merav Datan, Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy
Pakistan Zia Mian, Program on Science and Global Security, Princeton University
Russian Federation Pavel Podvig, Russian Nuclear Forces Project
United Kingdom John Ainslie, Scottish Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
United States Andrew Lichterman, Western States Legal Foundation
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