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UNGA Disarmament Index 2022: H-R

This is an index of all references made to issues of disarmament and arms control made during the 77th General Debate of the United Nations General Assembly from 20–26 September 2022. 

A-G | H-R | S-Z

Haiti | Holy See | HondurasHungary
Iceland | India | Indonesia | Iran | Iraq | Ireland | Israel | Italy
Jamaica | JapanJordan
Kazakhstan | Kenya | Kiribati | Kuwait | Kyrgyz Republic
Lao People's Democratic Republic | Latvia | Lebanon | Lesotho | Liberia | Libya | Liechtenstein | Lithuania | Luxembourg
Madagascar | Malawi | Malaysia | Maldives | Mali | Malta | Marshall Islands | Mauritania | Mauritius | Mexico | Micronesia | Moldova| Monaco | Mongolia | Montenegro | Morocco
Mozambique | Myanmar
Namibia | Nauru | Nepal | Netherlands | New Zealand | Nicaragua | Niger | Nigeria | North Macedonia | Norway
Oman
Pakistan | Palau | Palestine | Panama | Papua New Guinea | Paraguay | Peru | Philippines | PolandPortugal
Qatar
Republic of Korea | Romania | Russian Federation | Rwanda 

Honduras
Mr. Xiomara Castro, President
20 September 2022

Militarism: "We find unacceptable this arbitrary world order, in which there are third and fourth category countries, while those that are believed to be civilized do not tire of making invasions, wars, financial speculations, and crucifying us with their inflation over and over again time."

Hungary
Ms. Katalin Novák, President
21 September 2022

No relevant references.

Iran
Mr. Seyyed Ebrahim Raisi, President
21 September 2022

Nuclear weapons: “The use of nuclear weapons, did that take the world closer to fairness, justice and peace, or did it become the foundation for hegemonic powers?”

Nuclear weapons: “Dear colleagues, allow me to focus our attention on another phase of lack of justice and fairness, which is the double standard used when speaking of the nuclear science capacities of the Islamic Republic of Iran. We all know that is for only human and peaceful endeavours, but some countries are keen on portraying this as a threat in order to sweep under the rug what they should rightly face themselves, which should be denuclearisation. And I announced as the leader of the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Islamic Republic of Iran is not seeking to build or obtain nuclear weapons. And such weapons have no place in our doctrine … And all of this is taking place in a environment where countries themselves who seek to show us unjustice as a threat keep pursuing nuclear weapons and developing, testing, and having made a gift of those weapons of mass destruction to the zionist governament. And those countries that must be disarmed are awarded. But those who are observing proper frameworks are even threatened by NPT measures. And in a framework where only 2% of the nuclear activities of the world are taking place in Iran, Iran has been the subject of 35% of nuclear inspections.”

Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action: “The issue of guarantees is not just something that may happen, we are basing that on lived experience. We are speaking of the experience of America having left the JCPOA. And we have a year and a half of negotiations with the current American government to return to the fulfilment of her commitments. While today they speak of observing their commitments to this deal, they keep repeating the same old stories of the past, which puts a great deal of doubt on her true commitment to return to this agreement.”

Iraq
Mr. Mustafa Al-Kadhimi, Prime Minister
23 September 2022

Militarism: “Addressing you from this platform, I reiterate Iraq's calls for that its territories not be used under the pretext of combating terrorism or to protect the national security of other countries in a manner that endangers our security and stability. Iraq insists on the need to respect the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations and the rules of international law and international relations, respect for the sovereignty of States, the principles of good neighbourliness and the strengthening of cooperation ties. The Iraqi Government affirms its support for an approach that calls for the resolution of disputes through diplomacy.”

Militarism: “Like other countries in the world, Iraq believes that regional crises and wars have consequences for all the countries of the world and that they are the ordinary peoples who always pay the price of these wars. They have an impact on all aspects of life, especially on energy supply, food and security. Accordingly, we stress the need to find peaceful and sustainable solutions to regional and international crises through dialogue, and avoid the use of force, in order to maintain international peace and security, and to save the economy and humanity from the repercussions of these wars.”

Ireland
Mr. Micheál Martin, Prime Minister
22 September 2022

Explosive weapons: “Our commitment to the protection of civilians has also informed our work in leading negotiations to agree a Political Declaration on the use of Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas earlier this year. This Declaration is a significant milestone, which recognises the humanitarian consequences of the use of explosive weapons in populated areas, and includes a number of ambitious actions to address those impacts. I look forward to its formal adoption at a high-level international conference in Dublin on 18 November.”

Nuclear weapons, nuclear energy: “At this time of heightened nuclear threat, it is deeply regrettable that one country alone, Russia, prevented agreement at the Tenth Review Conference of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty last month. The heightened nuclear risks arising from Russia’s aggression against Ukraine, and the threats to nuclear safety and security resulting from military activity in and near civilian nuclear facilities in Ukraine, are unprecedented. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty must remain an essential element of international peace and security. The urgency of its full implementation cannot be overstated.”

Militarism: “In the past few days, many of my colleagues in this Hall have spoken of Russia’s illegal and immoral invasion of Ukraine. For European Member States in particular, this carries dark echoes of our continent’s past. We face an expansionist power, brutally invading and occupying a peaceful neighbour. We faced this many times in Europe in the 20th century. We did not think we would face it again in the 21st century. But this is not just a European issue. Not just a concern for ‘the West’.

“All States, and particularly small countries such as my own, should fear a world where might equals right, where the strong can bully the weak; where sovereignty and territorial integrity can be blatantly violated; and where the UN Charter – the Charter that all of us in this Assembly have faithfully put our trust in – can be flouted with impunity.”

Nuclear energy: “We have seen the targeting of nuclear facilities and of civilian infrastructure.”

Israel
Mr. Yair Lapid, Prime Minister
22 September 2022

Nuclear weapons: “There are however two major threats hanging over the head of our wonderful country. They also hang over your heads, even though you may try to deny them. The first is the nuclear threat. The fear that terrorist states and terrorist organizations will get their hands on nuclear weapons. The second threat is the demise of truth.”

Nuclear weapons: “If the Iranian regime gets a nuclear weapon, they will use it. The only way to prevent Iran from getting a nuclear weapon, is to put a credible military threat on the table. And then – and only then – to negotiate a Longer and Stronger deal with them. It needs to be made clear to Iran, that if it advances its nuclear program, the world will not respond with words, but with military force. Every time a threat like that was put on the table in the past, Iran stopped, and retreated”.

Militarism, nuclear weapons: “The Jews today have a state. We have an army. We have great friendships, first and foremost with the United States. We have capabilities and we are not afraid to use them. We will do whatever it takes: Iran will not get a nuclear weapon. We will not stand by while there are those who try to kill us. Not again. Never Again.”

Explosive weapons: “In less than a year, Hamas, a murderous terror organization, came to power. They destroyed the greenhouses and replaced them with terrorist training camps and rocket launch sites. Since we left Gaza, over 20,000 rockets and missiles have been fired at Israel. All of them at civilians. All of them at our children.”

Explosive weapons: “In May last year I had to wake her at 3 o’clock in the morning and run down with her to the bomb shelter, because missiles were exploding above our home.”

Explosive weapons: “We presented a comprehensive plan to help rebuild Gaza. We only have one condition: Stop firing rockets and missiles at our children.”

Italy
Mr. Mario Draghi, President of the Council of Ministers
20 September 2021

Militarism, use of explosive weapons in populated areas: “The invasion of Ukraine violates the values and rules on which international security and the civil coexistence between countries have rested for decades. We thought we would no longer have to witness wars of aggression in Europe. Imperial ambitions, militarism, systematic violations of civil and human rights seemed to belong to the last century. Since February, however, we have witnessed the bombing of theatres, schools, hospitals; we have seen terrible attacks and violence on civilians, on children; we have witnessed the attempt to subjugate a free and sovereign democracy, which has fought back with pride and courage to defend its independence, its dignity.”

Militarism, weapons: “The sanctions we imposed on Moscow have had a disruptive effect on Russia's war machine, on its economy. Russia struggles to make on its own the armaments it needs, as it finds it difficult to buy the materials required to produce them.”

Nuclear energy: “Our hope is that we will be able to find other ways of cooperating, starting with the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant. Letting a team of experts from the International Atomic Energy Agency access the plant was a step forward. Now it is essential that we arrive at some form of demilitarization of the area. We cannot risk a nuclear catastrophe.”

Militarism: “We must respond to this attack on peaceful coexistence with multilateralism, with a spirit of solidarity and responsibility. We must respond to Russia’s war of aggression by reaffirming the principles underlying this assembly: respect for human rights, international cooperation, and non-belligerence. In his 1988 General Assembly address, Mikhail Gorbačëv noted how, in a globalized world, force or the threat of its use could no longer function as an instrument of foreign policy. ‘Dealing with global problems,’ Gorbačëv said, ‘requires a new 'volume' and a new 'quality' of cooperation" on the part of states.’ Our reaction to the war in Ukraine serves to reaffirm that gratuitous violence should have no place in the 21st century. Italy hopes there can be a future in which Russia returns to the principles it chose to subscribe to in 1945. A world divided into blocs, characterized by rigid ideological demarcations and military confrontations cannot generate development, cannot solve problems. We must maintain our individual identities, but conduct international relations responsibly, legally, peacefully. This principle must apply to all the crises we face: from Ukraine, to the recent clashes in the Caucasus, to instability in Africa, the Middle East, Latin America, to tensions in the Indo-Pacific.”

Jamaica
Mr. Andrew Holness, Prime Minister
22 September 2022

Cyber peace and security: “As the world prepares for an even more digitally engaged future, we must take effective steps to protect cyberspace and its physical infrastructure to ensure that it is safely and securely available to all users across the world. Cybercrimes are an increasing threat and international cooperation is required to deal with this in a comprehensive manner. Jamaica fully supports the work underway in the UN to elaborate a cybercrime treaty and to work towards guidelines and a framework for cybersecurity”.

Small arms and light weapons: “However, the situation is exponentially complicated and exacerbated by the influx of illegal and unregistered small arms into our country. From organized transnational criminal enterprises to street level gangs, to the misguided youth in the inner city, the availability of guns is driving an ever-increasing homicide rate. In the same way that a war on drugs is being prosecuted, in which we have been faithful partners in policing what comes through our waters or leaves our shores, there now needs to be a “war on guns”. Jamaica does not manufacture guns, but our population suffers from the effects of widely available guns. The countries that manufacture weapons that are available to the public must implement stronger measures to ensure that those weapons do not end up on streets and in the hands of people for whom they were not intended. In the same way there is concern about illegal drugs on the streets of the rich countries there must be concern about guns on the streets of developing countries like Jamaica.”

Nuclear weapons: “The current global political and security environment is cause for great alarm. We have witnessed a nuclear armed super-power, permanent member of the Security Council, acting with impunity to launch a military offensive against its neighbour.”

Militarism: “Russia’s military incursion into Ukraine can only be condemned as a flagrant violation of the UN Charter. We must never return to the days when military might is considered a right. Jamaica strongly cautions against actions which could signal the demise of a peaceful multilateral order.”

Japan
Mr. Kishida Fumio, Prime Minister
20 September 2022

Disarmament and non-proliferation: “To demonstrate Japan's strong commitment to the United Nations as well as to multilateralism, I hereby declare Japan's determination to realize the vision of the United Nations. They are, First, the reform of the United Nations, including the Security Council, to return to the vision and principles of the UN Charter, with the strengthening of the UN’s own functions, including disarmament and non-proliferation. Second, the realization of a United Nations that promotes the rule of law in the international community. Third, the promotion of efforts based on the concept of human security in the new era.”

Nuclear weapons: “Threatening the use of nuclear weapons, as Russia has done, let alone the actual use of nuclear weapons, is a serious threat to the peace and security of the international community, and is absolutely unacceptable. As a prime minister from Hiroshima, I am immensely dedicated to the realization of a world without nuclear weapons driven by the sentiments from the hibakusha. Last month, the sole opposition by Russia blocked the unity and concerted efforts by the international community to reach consensus on an outcome document that would maintain and strengthen the NPT regime, which is the cornerstone of the international nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation regime. This caused me great dismay, just as it did for the overwhelming majority of the Member States. I, however, refuse to relent. Because we are only one country away from adopting the draft final outcome document by consensus. I believe this document represents a new foundation for the international community to proceed with realistic engagements on nuclear disarmament in the future. As the only nation to have ever suffered atomic bombings during war, Japan has a unique historic role and we renew our resolve to realize “a world without nuclear weapons.” We will continue to make realistic efforts to achieve this goal. We must ensure that Nagasaki remains the last place to suffer an atomic bombing.”

DPRK and nuclear weapons: “This is the 20th year since the Japan-North Korea Pyongyang Declaration which was signed by Prime Minister Koizumi and Chairman of the National Defense Commission Kim Jong-il. Japan's policy remains unchanged. Japan seeks to normalize its relationship with North Korea, in accordance with the Japan-DPRK Pyongyang Declaration, through comprehensively resolving the outstanding issues of concern such as the abductions, nuclear and missile issues, as well as settlement of the unfortunate past. Japan is prepared to engage in dialogue on matters of mutual concern. I am determined to meet with President Kim Jong-un without any conditions and will miss no opportunity to take actions with all my dedication.”

Jordan
Mr. Abdullah II, King
20 September 2022

No relevant references.

Kazakhstan
Mr. Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, President
20 September 2022

Nuclear weapons: “For the first time in two generations, we face the prospect of the use of nuclear weapons, and not even as a last resort.”

Disarmament: “There is nothing more important now than to return to the foundational principles that lie at the root of this universal organization. In particular, we must rethink the linkages between three primordial principles: the sovereign equality of states, the territorial integrity of states, and peaceful coexistence between states. (...) When the global disarmament regime – both conventional and nuclear – weakens, these three principles are threatened. Conversely, as these three principles are respected, they grow in strength.”

Nuclear weapons: “Kazakhstan has suffered terribly from past nuclear weapons testing, so we understand very clearly the dangers of escalating tensions between nuclear powers.”

“For this reason, nuclear disarmament has become a key part of Kazakh foreign policy and we will be continuously struggling for a world free of nuclear arsenals. Despite some progress in this area, unfortunately, the whole record is not that positive. We are alarmed by the increased rivalry and rhetoric of Nuclear States. We are also concerned at the lack of progress made by the NPT review conferences. Elaborating new mechanisms to ensure disarmament and nonproliferation is a daunting task ahead.”

Biological weapons:
“Similarly, the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the urgent need to manage and reduce biological risks and dangers. It should be of universal concern that we still rely on the Biological Weapons Convention – now 50 years old – without any efforts to create an agency or body for international cooperation. In this context, I would like to reiterate my earlier proposal to establish an International Agency for Biological Safety.”

Kenya
Mr. William Samoei Ruto, President
21 September 2022

Cyber peace and security: “Human well-being is under grave threat. The health of the planet requires urgent attention. The immense pressure exerted by conventional threats such as climate change, the global food crisis, terrorism, cybercrime and armed conflict has been compounded by unprecedented devastating disruptions due to Covid-19.”

Kiribati
Mr. Taneti Maamau, President
22 September 2022

Nuclear weapons, nuclear submarines: “With an ocean area large enough to fit the whole of Europe, our Kiribati Vision for 20 years and foreign policy objectives has been on the promotion of ocean health and wealth. This includes both the risks from nuclear submersibles traversing our waters and the damaging effects of Illegal Unregulated and Unreported activities on our fisheries. Most importantly, is the health of our people especially those who were exposed to the nuclear test blasts on Christmas Island.

“We are grateful for the leading role together with Kazakhstan on Articles 6 and 7 of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) concerning assistance for persons and environments harmed by nuclear testing. Two of the initiatives, that we proposed, are now reflected in the Vienna Programme of Action Plan. The first is the establishment of a voluntary trust fund to assist countries, communities and people and environments harmed by nuclear testing. Second, is a creation of a Scientific Advisory Body to help provide the Science needed to address health and environmental problems occasioned by past nuclear testing. We are grateful to those countries that have already pledged support and made contributions for these initiatives and especially those who are not yet states parties to the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.

“Let me be clear - humanity should be free now and forever from the tests and use of nuclear weapons. This is why my government has decided to invite the United Nations to use Kiritimati Island as a global or sub-global centre for anti-nuclear researches and related programmes and activities.”

Kuwait
Sheikh Ahmad Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah, Prime Minister
22 September 2022

Weapons of mass destruction: “And whereas the multiplicity and diversity of the kinds of challenges and dangers that humanity faces, starting from the spread of deadly epidemics, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the growing phenomenon of terrorism, in addiition to the threats related to natural disasters, climate change, poverty, and the rise in the frequency of caveats of food insecurity, require internaitonal cooperation; away from the logic of unilateral solutions.”

Militarism, ceasefire: “We emphasize the importance of adhering to the principles enshrined in the Charter, and in this regard, the State of Kuwait supports all UN endeavours and all other international efforts to de-escalate and cease-fire, in order to find a peaceful solution to the crisis, because the experiences of contemporary history have proven that peace, and its related mechanisms of mediation and dialogue, was and still is the optimum choice for resolving conflicts, no matter how long they last.”

Kyrgyz Republic
Mr. Sadyr Zhaparov, President
20 September 2022

Weapons: "We have documented evidence of the previous year’s and yesterday’s illegal and ill-intentioned actions of the Tajik side. We are never the first to start and never will. We always try to avoid using weapons, and even more so, never shoot at unarmed civilians!"

Latvia
Mr. Egils Levits, President
21 September, 2022

Militarism: “International law is the basis for the world peace order established by the United Nations Charter. At the core of this order is respect for the sovereignty of states and prohibition of the use of force. Starting a war of aggression is the gravest threat to our world peace order. Nevertheless, seven months now Russia has been waging an unprovoked and unjustified war against a sovereign UN Member State - Ukraine.

“Let me stress: This is not just a regional security issue. Russia's military aggression against Ukraine threatens global security and stability. In the 21st century, Russia maintains a 19th century ideology of imperialism, colonialism and racism. Russia invaded Georgia in 2008. It illegally annexed Ukraine’s Crimea in 2014. It has used increasingly aggressive rhetoric towards other neighbouring countries. These are all manifestations of its imperialistic and colonial ambitions. Denying another nation’s right to exist, promoting the idea of supremacy of Russians and their special missionary role in the world – these are all contemporary expressions of racism. That is exactly the opposite of what the UN stands for.”

Lebanon
Mr. Mohammad Najib Azmi Mikati, President of the Council of Ministers
21 September 2022

Disarmament, weapons of mass destruction: “We also believe in the international frameworks that address disarmament issues in their various forms.  We also welcome the work aimed at establishing an international understanding to rid the Middle East of weapons of mass destruction in implementation of General Assembly solution 73/546. We commend the previous sessions of the conference. We look forward also to the successful conclusion of the third session of the conference, which will be held under the presidency of Lebanon next November. We look forward to contributing to supporting the establishment of a zone free of weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East.”

Liberia
Mr. George Manneh Weah, President
22 September 2022

No relevant references.

Libya
Mr. Mohamed Younis Menfi, President
21 September 2021

Militarism: “Today, now, it is time for the human conscious to choose to speak out in favour of peace. And the entire world supports the international principles enshrined in the United Nations to uphold the principle of sovereignty of states and to resolve conflicts by peaceful means, and to respect good neighbourly relations and not destabilise security of nations.”

Nuclear energy: “I also call on the respect for the right of people to use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes in conformity with the criteria defined by the IAEA.”

Lithuania
Mr. Gitanas Nausėda, President
20 September 2022

Arms control, chemical weapons: “We all know that Russia’s violations of the founding principles of the United Nations did not start seven months ago. Destructive actions have undermined international security for many years. Breaching arms control treaties. Using prohibited chemical weapons both at home and abroad.”

Nuclear energy: “These past few months have also revealed the danger of a looming nuclear disaster in Europe. The deployment of Russian military personnel and weaponry at the Zaporizhzhia nuclear plant is alarming and totally unacceptable. It disregards the safety and security principles that all members of the International Atomic Energy Agency have committed to respect. A nuclear power plant should never be used as a military base! … We must collectively condemn such actions and require it to immediately and unconditionally withdraw all troops from the entire territory of Ukraine. … This should include withdrawing military and other personnel from the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power Plant.”

Nuclear weapons: “Moreover, Russia’s irresponsible rhetoric on the possible use of nuclear weapons directly contradicts its role as a P5 state and the commitment it has made in the January P5 Leaders’ Statement on Preventing Nuclear War and Avoiding Arms Races. We see a huge gap between declarations and real actions which undermines the trust in one of the permanent members of the UN Security Council.

“We must collectively condemn such actions and require it to immediately and unconditionally withdraw all troops from the entire territory of Ukraine. It must also stop irresponsible and dangerous nuclear rhetoric and behavior.”

Luxembourg
Mr. Xavier Bettel, Prime Minister
23 September 2022

Militarism: “For almost seven months, the Russian Federation, a permanent member of the Security Council, launched a full-scale war of aggression against Ukraine, a sovereign neighboring country, with the involvement of Belarus. This unprovoked and unjustified war has raised the spectre of a world war. Recent threats and measures announced by Moscow only aggravate the situation. Luxembourg strongly condemns them!”

Nuclear energy: “Russian aggression also poses a serious threat to Ukrainian nuclear facilities, creating an unacceptable risk for Ukraine and Europe as a whole.”

Madagascar
Mr. Andry Nirina Rajoelina, President
21 September 2021

Militarism: “We are convinced that all wars end around the table. Dialogue is the only way to establish peace. This is why Madagascar reiterates its call for dialogue to resolve the conflict, because the consequences are global, they are becoming more serious by the day and developing countries like ours are the main victims.”

Malawi
Dr. Lazarus McCarthy Chakwera, President
22 September 2022

No relevant references.

Malta
Mr. Robert Abela, Prime Minister
22 September 2022

Militarism: “Solutions in the 21st century are not found through the use of force and weapons. We can only prevent further deterioration of this situation if we manage to resolve war through dialogue, and meaningful negotiating efforts. The 21st century should not be an era of war.”

Marshall Islands
Mr. David Kabua, President
20 September 2022

Nuclear energy: “We welcome recent IAEA monitoring reports on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and look forward to continued engagement through appropriate fora.”

Nuclear weapons: “As the Marshall Islands, we stand gravely concerned at an increasingly polarized world where nuclear weapons testing and detonation are only growing in risk. We condemn the threats of further nuclear testing, and the threat of nuclear warfare. And we have humanitarian concerns of our own, shared by a great many other nations, over any nuclear detonation or the risk thereof. And here the Marshallese people also have a unique voice.”

“My country, the Marshall Islands, was ground zero for the testing of the 67 nuclear and thermonuclear weapons for twelve years during the UN-US administered trusteeship era. The exposure of our people and land has created impacts that have lasted – and will last – for generations. These impacts to our human rights, land, culture, health and lives, are burdens that no other nation or country should ever have to bear. Our own experience, history, and current challenges to nuclear exposure are key drivers for urging progress in reducing - and ultimately eliminating - nuclear risk. We welcome effective and meaningful progress on this from major powers and nuclear weapons states, and from all states - in whatever form it can effectively be achieved.”

Mauritius
Mr. Pravind Kumar Jugnauth, Prime Minister
23 September 2022

Cyber peace and security: “The world is getting increasingly connected digitally and cyber space is invading almost all areas of modern day life. However, while it is providing new opportunities it is also creating new challenges. The pandemic has brought to light the role of ICT as a crucial enabler of economic and social development, but we need to be cautious of the misuse and abuse of this technology as well. Mauritius socio-economic vision, multi-cultural and societal values take into account and encourage the pursuit of a secure, and safe digital world for all as we strive to undermine disinformation with accurate information. We strongly value the respect and promotion of human rights both online and offline. We are equally keen to protect human values, and promote tolerance and avoid hate speech. In this respect, we support the efforts of the international community to elaborate a comprehensive International Convention on Countering the Use of Information and Communications Technology for Criminal Purposes.”

Mexico
Mr. Marcelo Ebrard Casaubón, Minister for Foreign Affairs
22 September 2022

Arms race: “The current context is also characterised by increased geopolitical tensions between the major powers, a new arms race and the resurgence of various armed conflicts around the world.”

Nuclear weapons, nuclear energy: “Just when it seemed that the serious effects of the COVID-19 pandemic were about to be recovered, the war in Ukraine emerged, with the risk of a nuclear accident and its potentially catastrophic consequences, beyond the security and stability of Europe.”

Small arms and light weapons: “The illicit flows of small arms and light weapons, as a result of their widespread availability, undermine regional and international security, hinder demobilisation and disarmament processes and, in the end, jeopardise any stabilisation scheme for a country in a situation of armed conflict. This is why Mexico has insisted on the need to take measures to stop these arms flows. Proof of this was also the Security Council's adoption of Resolution 2616 (2021), which is aimed at respecting arms embargoes and ensuring that peace operations contribute to strengthening the capacities of national authorities to combat illicit arms trafficking and diversion.”

Nuclear weapons: “Nuclear weapons continue to represent the worst threat to the very survival of humanity. Mexico regrets the lack of political will - particularly on the part of the nuclear-weapon States - to reach agreements to achieve this goal, something that was confirmed at the recent Non-Proliferation Treaty review conference, which did not achieve any result, even though the risks of nuclear proliferation are becoming more real every day. My country agrees with the Secretary-General's vision that a more secure and peaceful world must be based on international law, cooperation and solidarity and not on the relentless accumulation and modernisation of nuclear and conventional arsenals.

“It was precisely this vision that led the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean to establish the first nuclear-weapon-free zone in a densely populated area through the Treaty of Tlatelolco and that led to the conclusion and entry into force, in recent years, of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.”

Militarism: “We cannot close the door to political dialogue and diplomatic negotiation. Current international tensions will not be resolved by force. We must secure political understandings and confidence-building mechanisms. Yes, restoring trust is one of our greatest challenges.”

Micronesia (Federated States of)
Mr. David Panuelo, President
22 September 2022

Nuclear energy: “Micronesia wishes to express our gravest concern about Japan’s decision to discharge, starting next year, nuclear-contaminated water, otherwise known as Advanced Liquid Processing System (ALPS) water into the ocean. We cannot close our eyes to the unimaginable threats of nuclear contamination, marine pollution, and eventual destruction of the Blue Pacific Continent. The impacts of this decision are both transboundary and intergenerational in nature. As Micronesia’s Head of State, I cannot allow for the destruction of our Ocean resources that support the livelihood of our people.”

Republic of Moldova
Ms. Maia Sandu, President
21 September 2022

Use of explosive weapons in populated areas: “Seven months of bombings have killed thousands of innocent people and pushed millions of Ukrainians to flee their homes.”

Nuclear energy: “This war is not just an attack on our neighbour and friend, Ukraine. It is an attack on the rules-based international order. It is an attack on nuclear safety.”

Ammunition: “We call on the complete and unconditional withdrawal of Russian troops. We call on the destruction of ammunition from the Cobasna stockpiles, which pose a security and environmental threat to the region as a whole.”

Cyber peace and security: “In addition, we are facing a wide spectrum of hybrid threats, from disinformation and propaganda to cyber-attacks and energy pressures.”

Monaco
Prince Albert II of Monaco, Prince
21 September 2022

Cyber peace and security: “Cyberspace must not become a place of confrontation, but rather an additional opportunity for cooperation. The proliferation of hate speech and disinformation is intolerable. Artificial intelligence must serve humans and not manipulate their behaviour and thinking. It is high time we succeeded in setting common rules so that cyberspace does not get out of hand, destroying our democracies and further separating us from each other.”

Mongolia
Mr. Khurelsukh Ukhnaa, President
21 September 2022

Nuclear weapons: “Last year, we celebrated the 60th anniversary of Mongolia’s full pledged membership to the United Nations, and this year, we are observing the 30th anniversary of Mongolia’s declaration of its territory as a nuclear weapon free zone, and the 20th anniversary of Mongolia’s participation in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations.”

Military spending: “According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute report, even in the difficult times, when the countries of the world were closing their borders, imposing restrictions and quarantines to protect lives and health of their citizens from the COVID-19 pandemic, and running into economic crises, the world military expenditure continued to grow in 2021, reaching an all-time high of USD 2.1 trillion. If this huge budget and funds spent on the military and armaments were dedicated to the least developed and developing countries, how many millions of children’s future would have been brighter, how many millions would have been lifted out of poverty, how many millions would have been freed from hunger and disease, how many millions would have had food, and opportunities for education, employment, and places to live. It is time for all of us to ponder and reflect on what progress could have been achieved if this huge amount of money had been spent on the pressing issues of combating global warming and climate change.”

Nuclear weapons, non-proliferation: “In his statement at the opening of the 10th Review Conference of the States Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons held last August, the UN Secretary-General warned that humanity is just ‘one misunderstanding, one miscalculation away from nuclear annihilation.’ In this connection, I urge not only States Parties to the treaty, but also all UN Member States to exert political will and courage to build a world free of nuclear weapons, unite and work together wholeheartedly and faithfully for the sake of our Mother Earth, peace, and future generations. Mongolia considers that nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation, complete elimination of nuclear weapons and establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones are the best and effective means of building a world free of nuclear weapons.Therefore, we consider that international recognition of Mongolia’s nuclear-weapon-free status is our tangible contribution and effort to this cause.”

DPRK and nuclear weapons: “Mongolia has consistently proposed the establishment of a dialogue mechanism, with a view to contribute to the peace and security in the Northeast Asian region and the efforts of the international community to denuclearize the Korean Peninsula.”

Morocco
Mr. Aziz Akhannouch, Head of Government
20 September 2022

No relevant references.

Namibia
Mr. Hage Geingob, President
21 September 2022

Cyber peace and security: “Our government is currently developing a consolidated national fourth industrial strategy to provide overarching direction and multi sectoral planning. The strategy will prioritise education reform to close the industrial revolution skill gap, cyber security and expansion of ICT infrastructure and services.”

Militarism:Namibia believes dialogue is the condition sine qua non for the peaceful resolution of any conflict. Our United Nations was created for the maintenance of peace and security. And should lead to a peaceful resolution in the Russia-Ukraine conflict.”

Aotearoa New Zealand
Ms. Jacinda Ardern, Prime Minister
23 September 2022

Nuclear weapons: “Putin’s suggestion that it could at any point deploy further weapons that it has at their disposal reveals the false narrative that they have based their invasion on. What country who claims to be a liberator, threatens to annihilate the very civilians they claim to liberate?”

Nuclear weapons: “There are other battles that we continue to wage as a nation, including our call for a global response to the use of nuclear weapons. Our history of championing not just non-proliferation, but a prohibition on nuclear weapons is grounded in what we have witnessed, but also what we have experienced. We are a nation that is both of the Pacific, and within it. It was in our region that these weapons of war were tested. Those tests have left a mark on the people, lands and waters of our home.

“The only way to guarantee our people that they will be safe from the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of nuclear weapons, is for them not to exist. That’s why Aotearoa New Zealand calls on all states that share this conviction to join the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. Some will call such a position naive. Some believe that we are safer as a result of nuclear weapons. In New Zealand, we have never accepted the wisdom of mutually assured destruction. It takes one country to believe that their cause is nobler, their might stronger, their people more willing to be sacrificed. None of us can stand on this platform and turn a blind eye to the fact that there are already leaders amongst us who believe this.

“Nuclear weapons do not make us safer. There will be those who agree but believe it is simply too hard to rid ourselves of nuclear weapons at this juncture. There is no question that nuclear disarmament is an enormous challenge. But if given the choice, and we are being given a choice, surely we would choose the challenge of disarmament than the consequences of a failed strategy of weapons-based deterrence.

“And this is why we will continue to advocate for meaningful progress on the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Progress and consensus that was recently blocked by Russia - and represented a backwards step to the efforts of nearly every country in the world to make some even limited progress on nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. None of this will stop New Zealand’s advocacy.”

Weapons, nuclear weapons, cyber peace and security: “We will remain a strong and passionate advocate for efforts to address the weapons of old, but also, the weapons that are new. After all, the face of war has changed. And with that, the weapons used. The tools used to challenge the statehood of others are hidden and more complex. Traditional combat, espionage, and the threat of nuclear weapons are now accompanied by cyber-attacks, prolific disinformation, and manipulation of whole communities and societies.

“As leaders, we have never treated the weapons of old in the same way as those that have emerged. And that’s understandable. After all, a bullet takes a life. A bomb takes out a whole village. A lie online or from a podium does not. But what if that lie, told repeatedly, and across many platforms, prompts, inspires, or motivates others to take up arms. To threaten the security of others. To turn a blind eye to atrocities, or worse, to become complicit in them. What then?

“This is no longer a hypothetical. The weapons of war have changed, they are upon us and require the same level of action and activity that we put into the weapons of old. We recognised the threats that the old weapons created. We came together as communities to minimise these threats. We created international rules, norms and expectations. We never saw that as a threat to our individual liberties - rather, it was a preservation of them. The same must apply now as we take on these new challenges.”

Cyber peace and security: “Upholding these values in a modern environment translates into protecting a free, secure and open internet. To realise all of the opportunities that it presents in the way we communicate, organise and gather. But that does not mean the absence of transparency, expectations or even rules. If we correctly identify what it is we are trying to prevent. And surely we can start with violent extremism and terrorist content online.

“On the 15th of March 2019 New Zealand experienced a horrific terrorist attack on its Muslim community. More than 50 people were killed as they prayed. The attack was live-streamed on a popular social media platform in an effort to gain notoriety, and to spread hate. At that time, the ability to thwart those goals was limited. And the chances of government alone being able to resolve this gap was equally challenging. That’s why, alongside President Emmanuel Macron we created the Christchurch Call to Action. The Call Community has worked together to address terrorism and violent extremist content online. As this important work progresses, we have demonstrated the impact we can have by working together collaboratively.

“We’ve improved crisis reactions, stymieing the ability to live stream attacks, we have crisis protocols that kick in to prevent proliferation. We are also focused on prevention – understanding the interactions between online environment and the real world that can lead to radicalisation.

“This week we launched an initiative alongside companies and non-profits to help improve research and understanding of how a person’s online experiences are curated by automated Processes. This will also be important in understanding more about mis and disinformation online. A challenge that we must as leaders address.

“Sadly, I think it’s easy to dismiss this problem as one in the margins. I can certainly understand the desire to leave it to someone else. As leaders, we are rightly concerned that even those most light-touch approaches to disinformation could be misinterpreted as being hostile to the values of free speech we value so highly. But while I cannot tell you today what the answer is to this challenge, I can say with complete certainty that we cannot ignore it. To do so poses an equal threat to the norms we all value.

“After-all, how do you successfully end a war if people are led to believe the reason for its existence is not only legal but noble? How do you tackle climate change if people do not believe it exists? How do you ensure the human rights of others are upheld, when they are subjected to hateful and dangerous rhetoric and ideology? The weapons may be different, but the goals of those who perpetuate them is often the same. To cause chaos and reduce the ability of others to defend themselves. To disband communities. To collapse the collective strength of countries who work together.

“But we have an opportunity here to ensure that these particular weapons of war do not become an established part of warfare. And so, we once again come back to the primary tool we have. Diplomacy, dialogue, working together on solutions that do not undermine human rights, but enhance them. For those who have not sought out the Christchurch Call to Action, I ask that you consider it. As with so many of the challenges we face, we will only be as strong as those who do the least.”

Niger
Mr. Mohamed Bazoum, President
22 September 2022

Arms trade: “Suddenly the vast territory of southern Libya has become a transnational organized crime platform where trafficking in arms, drugs and fuel and migrants, maintaining insecurity structural in all the Sahel countries of its neighborhood…. The essential weapons that flood the market with terrorist violence also come from Libya. It seems to me that in the present case we are faced with a problem that is not particularly complicated. Why, then, has it not yet been possible to set up an adequate device, with the necessary means to combat this phenomenon properly? It is high time indeed that our collective reflection acquires more relevance to make possible an efficient action against this trafficking.”

Nigeria
Mr. Muhammadu Buhari, President
21 September 2022

Small arms and light weapons: “We are now more severely tested by these enduring and new global challenges, paramount among which are conflicts increasingly being driven by non-state actors, proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons, terrorism, violent extremism, malignant use of technology, climate change, irregular migration, and disparities in opportunities for improved standards of living.”

Nuclear weapons: “Indeed, the ongoing war in Ukraine is making it more difficult to tackle the perennial issues that feature each year in the deliberations of this Assembly, such as nuclear disarmament, the right of the Rohingya refugees to return to their homes in Myanmar, and the Palestinians’ legitimate aspirations for statehood and reduction of inequalities within and amongst nations.”

Nuclear weapons, arms trade: “The danger of escalation of the war in Ukraine further justifies Nigeria’s resolute calls for a nuclear-free world and a universal Arms Trade Treaty, which are also necessary measures to prevent global human disasters. In this regard we must find quick means to reach consensus on the Nuclear non-proliferation Treaty with related commitments by nuclear weapon states.”

Norway
Mr. Jonas Gahr Støre, Prime Minister
22 September 2022

Militarism, explosive weapons: “Russia’s unprovoked attack on Ukraine has led to massive suffering, large-scale humanitarian needs and destruction of civilian infrastructure. Russia bears sole responsibility for the war and its consequences. And Russia is responsible for bringing it to an end.”

Pakistan
Mr. Muhammad Shehbaz Sharif, Prime Minister
23 September 2022

Militarism: “The nations of the world must/ step/ back from the precipice. We must restore peace in Europe, avoid a war in Asia and resolve festering conflicts across the world. We must revive the vision which created the United Nations, a vision which is often blurred by national interests and hegemonic designs.”

Palau
Mr. Gustav Aitaro, Minister for Foreign Affairs
21 September 2021

Explosive weapons: “The war in Ukraine rages on, extolling damage to infrastructure, homes, schools and cultural sites, killing innocent people, and continuing to terrorize the children of Ukraine.”

Military spending: “There is no profit sufficiently large to be worth the price of war or the destruction of our planet.”

Panama
Mr. José Gabriel Carrizo, Vice-President
22 September 2022

Militarism: “The path of conflict and war leads to more calamities and disasters. It's the wrong path.”

Papua New Guinea
Mr. James Marape, Prime Minister
22 September 2022

No relevant references.

Paraguay
Mr. Mario Abdo Benítez, President
20 September 2022

No relevant references.

Peru
Mr. Pedro Castillo, President
20 September 2022

No relevant references.

Philippines
Mr. Ferdinand Romualdez Marcos Jr., President
20 September 2022

Nuclear weapons: “Nuclear weapons continue to pose an existential threat despite our efforts to build norms that resoundingly prohibit them. We must reject the notion of deterrence and remain committed to decreasing the global stockpile of these weapons.”

Small arms and light weapons, improvised explosive devices: “At the same time, we must also address the scourge of the proliferation of all weapons, be they small arms, light weapons, or improvised explosive devices.”

Nuclear energy: “But we also need to update the global structures that facilitate international cooperation on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, biology, and chemistry.”

Cyber peace and security, outer space, autonomous weapons: “At the same time, we need new structures to govern rapid advances in other areas. We need to start by defining the norms of responsible behavior in cyberspace and outer space and forming legal rules that will prevent the weaponization of artificial intelligence.”

Poland
Mr. Andrzej Duda, President
20 September 2022

Nuclear weapons, militarism: “The war has been going on for seven months, and Russia is not limiting itself to fighting the Ukrainian army, with whom they are losing. It is killing civilians or forcibly relocating them to its territory. It is destroying cities, monuments, schools, kindergartens, hospitals. It destroys agricultural crops and devastates the environment. It destroys literally everything it cannot seize or loot. It even threatens to cause a nuclear catastrophe.”

Portugal
Mr. António Costa, Prime Minister
22 September 2022

Militarism, ceasefire: “In Europe today we are confronted with the unjustified and unprovoked invasion of Ukraine, in flagrant violation of international law, primarily of the United Nations Charter. A war with devastating effects for the Ukrainian people, brutally affecting the civilian populations…. Russia must cease hostilities and allow for the creation of a serious and sustained ceasefire- and peace-oriented dialogue.”

Nuclear weapons: “This is not the time for Russia to escalate the conflict or to make irresponsible threats to resort to nuclear weapons.”

Militarism: “I am very proud of the recognition our military and security forces have received for their contribution to crisis and conflict management on all continents - under the aegis of the United Nations, NATO or the European Union.”

Qatar
Sheikh Tamim Bin Hamad Al-Thani, Amir
20 September 2022

Nuclear weapons, nuclear energy, Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action: "We in Qatar believe in the need to achieve a just agreement on Iran’s nuclear program that takes into account the concerns of all parties and that establishes a region free of nuclear weapons. A solution that also recognises the right of the Iraninan people to benefit from nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. There is no alternative to this agreement. This agreement would contribute to the stability and security of the region and would open the door for more dialogue and to achieving regional security”.

Republic of Korea
Mr. Yoon Suk Yeol, President
20 September 2022

Nuclear weapons, weapons of mass destruction: “Today, the global community is yet again witnessing freedom and peace of its citizens put in jeopardy. Attempts to alter the status quo by force endangers the lives of innocent people; nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction pose increasing threats to humanity; systemic violations of human rights leave millions of children deprived of their future.”

Romania
Mr. Klaus-Werner Iohannis, President
20 September 2022

Nuclear energy: “Energy security is a global concern, requiring joint solutions and responsible action. We must avoid the use of energy as a tool of blackmail. Energy security requires strategic investments in renewables, in nuclear power - with new future-oriented projects such as small modular reactors - or in hydrogen. It also requires energy prices that are accessible for our citizens.”

Rwanda
Mr. Paul Kagame, President
21 September 2022

No relevant references.