Assuring destruction forever: 2020 edition
This updated study explores the ongoing and planned nuclear weapon modernisation programmes in China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, France, India, Israel, Pakistan, Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
As of early 2020, the nuclear-armed states are estimated to possess approximately 13,410 nuclear weapons, most of which are many times more powerful than the nuclear weapon dropped on Hiroshima. All the nuclear-armed states have plans to modernise—upgrade and / or extend the lives of—their nuclear weapons.
This report is an update of a study that Reaching Critical Will initiated in 2012. Each chapter of the Assuring destruction forever: 2020 edition has been prepared by experts on national nuclear weapon programmes. Each goes through the current status of nuclear weapon forces; modernisation programmes and plans; the costs of these programmes; the countries’ positions on international nuclear weapon law and policy; and public discourse related to nuclear weapons.
Edited by Allison Pytlak and Ray Acheson
Published in June 2020 by Reaching Critical Will, a programme of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom
Introduction Ray Acheson
China Hui Zhang
Democratic People's Republic of Korea Ko YouKyoung
France Hans Kristensen
India M.V. Ramana and Prerna Gupta
Israel Sharon Dolev
Pakistan Zia Mian
Russia Pavel Podvig
United Kingdom Janet Fenton
United States Greg Mello and Trish Williams-Mello
About the authors
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